The Eucalyptus Problem




The Eucalyptus Problem


To counteract the toxic effect of the Australian Eucalyptus tree from the previous century's devastating eroding impact on the landscape, the required natural shield of indigenous Ethiopian tree plantation proceeds today in modern times with the highest importance. Despite this arduous work with the native tree plantation, Eucalyptus globulus still prevails as the dominating vegetation on Entoto Mountain and other places around Addis Ababa. This Eucalyptus tree is of Australian origin, brought to Ethiopia over 100 years ago, an export by mistake when the international knowledge in natural sciences was still very rudimentary. Then, the worldwide need for fuel caused deforestation in Ethiopia, with most areas around the Capital affected due to the lack of wood construction and energy.

The Background to the Eucalyptus Tree in Ethiopia

The introduction of the new Australian Eucalyptus species was very successful in Ethiopia, as its growing speed in height gave a straight timber that surpassed the indigenous trees. However, the first optimistic results from the eucalyptus plantings in the Ethiopian landscape soon proved to be a hasty and imprudent misconception since this Australian tree's poisoning of the Ethiopian environment not only harmed the native ecology but also dramatically reduced the country's freshwater. Although the earlier Eucalyptus plantations still cover the bulk of the Park area, some of the first introduced foreign trees originate from this first phase of the artificially introduced reforestation. Despite the apparent severe ecological damage in the Ethiopian landscape, the Australian eucalyptus on Entoto remained the planted species during the past century. Despite the Australian Eucalyptus tree being an integral part of modern Ethiopian history, it's a tree with an origin that does not belong to the Ethiopian flora.


Biodiversity:  Foreign trees often have difficulties in adjusting to their new environment. The Eucalyptus is growing apparently without trouble, but it is not capable of sexually reproducing itself, i.e. the seeds do not germinate in the Ethiopian soils. Therefore the standard procedure of introduction is the planting of seedlings.


Ethiopia's Historical Landscape and

The Eucalyptus Trees' Introduction

These introduced foreign and young Eucalyptus trees soon dominated Capital's surrounding landscape, efficiently conquering the area of the sparsely remaining indigenous trees and vegetation. The Eucalyptus tree is a fast grower, reaching above the other native trees and suppressing them. At the same time, a chemical component in the leaves and roots of these Eucalyptus trees prevents the growth of other trees and herbs. Due to this unfortunate side-effect of the foreign Eucalyptus tree's toxification of the surroundings appeared in the terrain a fragile and brittle ground with a mono-culture of the alien Eucalyptus as the only tree species. Hence, a foreign tree's toxin eradicates the native remaining protective ground cover and thereby significantly causes the loss of valuable water by torrential freshwater rejections in short-lived sudden bursting flash floods of soil-milling erosion.


The Importance of Domestic Trees

Reinforcement of Native Roots Against Erosion


The Torrential Rains and Erosion
Erosion: The soil-holding capacity of Eucalyptus is very moderate compared with the original Ethiopian ground cover and trees, initially covering the slopes of Entoto. Because there is no ground cover in the foreign-implanted Eucalyptus forest, the only thing to hold the soil is the sporadic web of roots of the trees. This lack of soil stabilizing undergrowth causes severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis in connection with the rainy seasons. For every rain period, torrential forces eradicate valuable nutrition while the layer of fertile soil gets thinner. Without due care and preservation within a few years, no fertile ground will remain for new vegetation, and the erosion will be irreversible.

Flooding: On Entoto, every leaf and branch that has fallen to the ground is collected by people, whereas in a natural forest, organic material from leaves, wood, roots, etc., is left to be decomposed in the soil. The organic matter improves the soil structure, leading to a higher infiltration rate and a much better water storage capacity.



The Toxicity of the Foreign Eucalyptus Tree

Hence, the toxic effect of this Australian and foreign tree wastes the precious downpours in rapid flash floods from the slopes, thereby creating destructive forces of soil milling properties. This dangerous environmental erosive phenomenon is visually evident in the slopes' of the landscape with artificial eucalyptus plantings and their furrowed eroded ground of brittle clay crust. Hence, regrettably, an apparent phenomenon with the loss of Natur's armoured shield of native undergrowth is evident in the Highland's mountainous slopes. This foreign Eucalyptus tree's toxification of the surroundings causes a barren and brittle ground, scared and depleted of native undergrowth, with Eucalyptus as the only tree species. Hence, this aggressive and treacherous tactical poisoning of the foreign Eucalyptus tree mercilessly eradicates the native remaining protective endemic plants, consequently exterminating Ethiopia's wildlife's survival base.

A Toxicity Causing Desertification and Famine

Therefore, the depletion of Ethiopia's reinforcing endemic tree roots and native undergrowth ground protection, poisoned by this foreign toxification, causes an unavoidable impoverishment of the landscape. Hence, the following lack of native vegetation causes an uncontrollable force of erosion in forcefully ground chiselling flashfloods, thereby losing the soil's precious nourishment. Thus, this toxification causes the loss of endemic habitats for Ethiopia's wildlife and destroys previously lush pastures, leaving once productive meadows impossible for livestock, thereby gravely impoverishing the farmers' daily life and, regrettably, even the actual conditions for the farmers and their families survival. Thus, the severe loss of water resources by torrential rejections of valuable deluges by short-lived sudden and violent, bursting water masses is also threatening the country's economy and, ultimately, even the real threat to the population's health and life quality, thus affecting the long-term survival of the country's inhabitants.


Juniper Forest's Water Preserving versus

the Eucalyptus tree's elimination of the groundwater.


It's still spoken among the residents of Entoto
 about when the water level a reasonable time
 after the rainy seasons, still stood one metre
higher in Entoto's streams and pools.
Environment, Culture and Prosperity

The Eucalyptus Tree and its Tactical Toxicity.

A chemical component with an intricate competition-oriented toxic defence system in the leaves and roots of Eucalyptus trees prevents the growth of other trees and herbs. This chemical component leads to a mono-culture with Eucalyptus as the only tree species and eventually no ground cover. This chemical component causes severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis connected with the rainy seasons.
 
The Environmental danger of the Eucalyptus tree.  
Due to these shortcomings in the water-preserving capacity of the Eucalyptus plantation, it cannot counterbalance the uneven distribution of rain. The result is often torrential flooding in the down-slope areas, in this case, the northern district of Addis Ababa. In August 1994, it created a fatal danger because of overwhelming and sudden flooding.


The Australian Eucalyptus Tree 

The Historical and Environmental Background

Thus, the foreign Eucalyptus tree in Ethiopia negatively affects Nature's and citizens' water resources. Instead of protecting the landscape, this alien tree rejects the precious deluges in dangerous torrential flooding. Areas that were periodically wet and with a flora adjusted to such conditions get drained by planted Eucalyptus. Because of the poor flora in the planted Eucalyptus forest, the biodiversity of an Eucalyptus plantation is extremely low. These shortcomings from the Eucalyptus forest are not due to the Australian tree itself but its foreign introduction and incompatibility with native Ethiopian plants and their required symbiosis with endemic microorganisms needed by specialized wildlife, insects and birds. Therefore, removing Ethiopia's native trees depleted this unique synergy of plants and microorganisms from vast areas, thus severely wounding the country's highland landscape's natural habitat and damaging its vital process of creating nutrition and water resources.


The Eucalyptus Trees' Ground Deterioration of the Landscape

The barren, eroded ground surrounding the Eucalyptus tree appears to be a very different landscape compared to the vital multitude within the endemic lushness of the native Juniperus procera forest. The Eucalyptus trees' roots are evident in the heavily eroded highland terrain where these trees appear with the typical barren clay characteristic of the surrounding fragile soil. In the landscape, the Eucalyptus tree's roots often appear separated from the terrain and the rest of the ground. Therefore, the surrounding eroded base of the Australian eucalyptus tree appears with its bare and exposed roots as sporadic upward-stemming tubers but with a limited number of periodic and minor radiating of the trees' root stems.



Ethiopia's Nature and How the Country Lost Its Water


This image forms the basis for understanding
 nature's water-bearing body. The water is kept
  here in the totality of this image, where both
 vegetation, soil and rock make up this vital
water-bearing body to create this highly
valuable water-harbouring landscape.
Study of the water's complexity

Ethiopia's Natural Water Production.
The history's misdeeds against Ethiopia's natural forest and Nature severely wounded the prehistoric ecological and geological heritage by interrupting the natural and critical processes of original soil creation derived from the endemic decomposing leaves and twigs. This genetically optimized process of the indigenous trees' downfall in leaves and twigs of the Ethiopian forest had the vital ability to hinder the erosive torrents' initiation. Hence, the soil's structure from historical times still had its capacity to absorb deluges in this mountainous highland landscape.

The Natural Water Bodies of the Highland.
This historical malefactor against the original Ethiopian Nature severely weakened the county's original soil system in its essential function to lead and assist the rainwater to the natural underground aquifers. Hence, the severe reduction of the remaining soil's ability to receive moisture severely reduces the delivery of the fed hydrogeologic water into the natural aquifers and, of course, reduces future chances for the citizens to obtain clean household water. Hence, Ethiopia's groundwater loss derives from the decreased size of the water harbouring bodies within the Highland's totality of organic, sediment and mountain. Therefore, with the loss of the Highland's natural water bodies, this phenomenon even raises hindrances to reintroducing indigenous species.
 

The Loss of Natur's Armoured & Guardian Shield

This immense destructive environmental phenomenon follows the loss of Ethiopian native vegetation in the historical past and elucidates the importance of an endemic foundation for lush and soil-shielding undergrowth. Hence, scientific evidence appears since the indigenous Ethiopian trees characterize the historical landscape in dense covering and shielding vegetation. These native trees' diverse and widespread network of soil-reinforcing roots thus provide a firm ground for a dense network of native vegetation. Hence, Ethiopia's ancient and evolutionary optimized Nature confirmed its ability to absorb the water to the ground and, most importantly, purify and deliver these deluges into the natural underground reservoirs (aquifers). Thus, in the past, Ethiopia's Nature and its landscape's hydrogeology harmonically harboured the water masses, distributing and storing the otherwise torrential deluges' destructive forces into a transformation as precious groundwater.


The Hope for Ethiopia's Lost Water


Historically, these large quantities of torrential
 precipitations were accumulated for a long time
 within the borders of Ethiopia. At the same time
 in the past, the water's tremendous power was
subdued in its sudden and erosive flashfloods,
 thus preventing destructive soil milling.
The Ethiopian Highland is the Legendary Water Provider.
However, this Ethiopian primary source of the Nile River is only one of several Ethiopian rivers that contribute to the total water in the Nile. Consequently, the total amount of water delivered from the Ethiopian Highland to the Nile is above the Blue Nile. The Blue Nile from Ethiopia is here, with 70 - 80% of the Nile's water during the rainy seasons, and is without comparison to the dominant source of the Nile, which should be essential to point out as a crucial historical reality. Thus, Egypt, the ancient high culture, usually regarded as the cultural cradle for the ancient Greek and European civilizations, have their historical culture thanks to the watershed from the Ethiopian Highlands.


A Great Legacy of Historical Waterways
Despite the usual and faulty description of how the lands south of Ethiopia are the source of the Nile, this is only correct in the adventure literature and the early travellers' romantic stories of heroic adventures and explorers' discoveries through the ascent of the breathtakingly beautiful cloud-covered Rwenzori mountains and glaciers in the range through the countries of Uganda and Congo.   




The Natural Science and 

The Beauty of Ethiopia's Highland


Bees' Cliff 14 assists by the vast map
 loop surrounding points 36 and 41-42

The Wild Forest of the Ancient
The healing capacity of an indigenous forest
The natural health and fertile beauty in this indigenous Juniper forest illuminates with precision the healing capacity of a native forest but regrettably also the severe Nature and habitat destruction that occurred at the introduction of the Eucalyptus tree. The importance of careful research regarding knowledge in natural science delivers an intense and evident example before any foreign species prevails as possible for an introduction into an unfamiliar and vulnerable habitat.

The Juniper Forest of the Ancient.
Those who want a deeper Juniper forest to emerge from the mist of history prevail the opportunity with a concealed near 50-year-old, wild and original Juniperus procera woodland. This primaeval forest (40) is close to the east of point (16) but still hidden behind an elevated ridge and on the eastern slope. This native Juniper forest provides a unique insight into how Nature emerged before introducing the Eucalyptus from Australia over 100 years ago.


The Eucalyptus Plantation in Ethiopia

Land Use: The bulk of the area is used as a plantation. Eucalyptus has been grown for a long time, mainly for construction wood. Lately, the illegal cutting of trees has accelerated, with large amounts of timber being brought out. Fallen branches for fuelwood are collected by people living in the area and outsiders. Some females are actually sweeping the ground for some single twigs. The regular land use on this kind of soil would be cattle raising and mixed farming (Foth 1984), which can still be seen. One part in the upper eastern and another in the western is used for crops and cattle breeding.

The Sensitive Balance of Nature and Inhabitants     

The remaining places of highland meadows surrounded by indigenous trees still provide nourishment for scarcely occurring livestock due to these meadows' reduced influence from the toxicity of the Eucalyptus tree. Hence, some of these cultivated fields with indigenous Nature remain, where the Eucalyptus tree has not yet ruined the ground vegetation by these trees' foreign and tactical toxicity, see map loops (B) and (14) points (39), (41- 42). These preserved areas with remaining indigenous Ethiopian trees constitute areas with open grass fields, see map points (16) and (B) - (39) and (41) above point (16). With a park-like appearance, the indigenous Juniper trees still prevail here in fascinating and beautiful places of a lush landscape where livestock have green and fertile meadows for grazing thanks to the indigenous trees' erosion resistance and fertility impact on the landscape. There are fenced pastures for the animals, but shepherds usually guard the livestock inside the Park area in contact with the existing 60 households. Today, visitors come to Entoto for recreation, as it is the only forest-like area in the city's vicinity and has beautiful views from the mountain.


The Australian Eucalyptus Tree and its Ancient Legacy.


  • 1. It seems very strange that a tree species can be hostile and directly toxic to its surrounding Nature to the extent that it eliminates the very soil layer that forms its basis and thus undermines the conditions for its future as a species. The scientific deduction here exhibits a foreign intruder with an incompatible genetic legacy.  Videos: Soil Erosion Demo


  • 2. The reason for these strange hostile contradictions of this Australian tree's negative impacts on the Ethiopian environment is its scientific background in this Australian Eucalyptus tree's autonomous and insidiously aggressive survival strategy. The Ethiopian environmental trouble concerns the Eucalyptus tree's artificial relocation as a poisoning intruder in the Ethiopian highlands. Furthermore, the description of this matter derives from the original continental remoteness of the Eucalyptus tree's geological and genetic past in Australia.

  • 3. The distant continent of Australia's developed fauna and flora has undergone an extremely long evolutionary optimization to best adapt to the unique condition of its geological and surrounding genetic characteristics. The Australian uniquely native indigenous habitat received its distinctive property of plant and wildlife through this remoteness. Hence, due to this isolated location by oceans and aeons, the Eucalyptus tree created the specificity of its soil in seclusion and, in connection to its ecological uniqueness. However, the Eucalyptus tree's foreign genetic legacy's impact in Ethiopia undermines its and other organisms' existence.

        • 4. Australia's unique flora and fauna have developed a distinctive character to become more or less toxic to its environment through separate seclusion from other continents. However, and very important in this context, Australia's organisms have, in their defence system, developed an equally strong resistance against these multi-folded toxicities, thus equipping the organisms with evolutionary competition-oriented circumstances on their continent. Furthermore, this toxicity depends on direct genetically controlled survival strategies to avoid, for example, overgrazing or a large infestation of insects or even as a tool in the competition between tree species of the ground itself.

        • 5. The Australian continent and its Eucalyptus tree appear in displaced contradictions due to continental distances of ocean magnitude to other continents. It has, thus, in Australia, been possible for animal and plant species to develop evolutionary characteristics that have no direct genetic contact with the animals and vegetation of other continents. A long time appears here in segregated genetic enhancement for Australia's different evolution regarding its organism's optimization to elaborate the required mutation and genetic enhancement defence mechanisms against plants' toxicity. This prehistoric evolution in the genetic legacy of the very remote past in the Australian surrounding fauna and flora is unique but still mostly beyond knowledge, and for the future to research within Nature's ancestral vault. This genetic material is something to carefully, scientifically protect and seriously investigate because it may include crucial components for the future development of medicine or other completely vital research.

        • 6. Thus, developing this tree's toxic substances has given the Eucalyptus tree increased survivability in an often demanding environment. The Eucalyptus tree's toxicity is controlled by its DNA, protecting it from overgrazing animals and parasitic or infectious organisms. However, due to its tactical toxicity, the Eucalyptus tree also improved its capacity to struggle for water and nutrients with other tree species. The contact with the Eucalyptus tree's toxicity caused Australia's biotope to pass through aeons of improved resistance against poisoning. With an evolutionarily tempered competition due to an often fierce struggle for nutrition and water resources, the Australian vegetation received the legacy of unique genetic defences and sufficient toxic protective defence against various herbivores and other natural threats to its survival.

        • 7. Hence, the geographical aeons of the distance between Australia and other continents is large enough to create a different and incompatible DNA. Therefore, the Australian eucalyptus trees obtained optimization for the Australian continent, where they have their genetic origin but are potentially directly harmful to habitats on the other continents due to their early deviating genetic prehistory. With its enhanced DNA and tactical toxic defence system, this Australian tree will doubtless cause incompatibilities for different continents' biotopes of Earth's organisms.

        • 8. Therefore, the Eucalyptus tree is treacherous in its silent strategy, working mechanisms from a foreign origin with an autonomous hostile DNA against other countries' unprepared organisms. Due to the different continents' biotopes, the endemically restricted defence mechanisms among other continents' biotopes cause vulnerabilities against the toxicity of the Eucalyptus tree's biology. Thus, this considerable distance between Australia and other continents often leads to a very different ecology, which exposes the essential lack of sophisticated defence or resistance within other countries' native organisms' genetic constitutions.


        • 9. Introducing this Australian tree into Ethiopia over a hundred years ago inflicted these contradictions and problems caused by incompatible evolutionary origins. There needed to be more advanced knowledge internationally in the natural sciences to understand the danger of plants or animals' exotic and alien introduction. Thus, by severe short-sightedness due to a lack of international science in ecology. Yet, for a long time, the very rudimentary knowledge internationally about the necessary laboratory examination of plants' and animals' toxicity regarding the necessity of rigorous inspections in epidemic-secured vaults, sealed by government-supervised laboratory environments before allowing any international dissemination.

        • 10. This continental export of species is a susceptible subject that can dramatically affect several countries and ethnic groups. The reasons for the foreign substances' diplomatic and biological sensitivity to any previously received environment are many and intimately associated with the concerned countries' economies and far-reaching health conditions. It has long been known in science and biology that substances in the human environment have influenced the development of the present human heritage and its genome. This knowledge of the connection between the human genome and its effect in a specific biological environment directly concerns the current spread of humans to areas that lack the prehistorical opportunity to influence the international groups' human genome.

        • 11. This incompatibility due to the impact between the human genome and the substances of clearly foreign origin is very relevant for today's people. The contradictions in the relationship between the human genome and the new environments derive their source and explanation from increasingly international migration. These problems with the incompatible human genetic legacy may appear when people now migrate and live in areas where they have not previously populated but arrived as newly established ethnic groups. Similar difficulties become relevant with the export of significant biological products from distant continents to sites that have offered humans an already adapted development of their genome for their unique biotope during a long evolutionary time.



        • 12. Concerning these human civilizations of today, with their prehistoric evolved indigenous populations, requires a careful biological evaluation of the possibility of mitigating adverse effects from not human-compatible imports. These safeguards may be offered by adding refined food to the diet that counteracts the increased sensitivity to foreign substances. In addition, a common and practical solution to neutralize the foreign substances appears with the treatment for the recently established population with certain minerals or natural vitamin supplements that may be suitable for a shorter initial period. Modern science with well-balanced control can likely produce the necessary substances to counteract debilitating effects from foreign plant-based substances, thereby increasing science and medical knowledge. Thus, considering Eucalyptus trees' impact on other countries' indigenous vegetation may cause doubt and require scientific evaluation of these effects on human health. Therefore, a potential threat to the exposed population is also providing this culture with the motivation for scientific advancement and increasing the possibility of enriching this culture with a stronger and more prosperous civilization.

        Indigenous species

        An area in the southeast contains junipers, but these remaining indigenous trees face a significant threat due to fuelwood collectors. On the steep hillsides and in the gorges and gullies in the lower part, there still remain trees of indigenous species like Juniperus proceraPodocarpus graciliorDovyalis abyssinica, Olea europea var, Africana, and Ficus sp.



        Some solitary indigenous trees stand in open areas, e.g. Hagenia abyssinica and Hypericum sp. Beautiful meadows in the upper eastern part have a high diversity of herbs, and several species can also be found along the brooks. 
        (Håkan Blanck and Pia Englund, Entoto Natural Park 1995).





        Ethiopia's Natural History

        With Geology & Evolution. 

        Although regarding the Eucalyptus plantation in Ethiopia, this tree follows very high and contradictory water consumption, mainly by rejecting the country's yearly precipitations in fast-flowing torrents. Due to this, the Australian trees lack prehistoric DNA for the Ethiopian soil and organisms; this foreign tree counteracts the Ethiopian landscape's ability to withhold its precious water. Thus, this introduced Australian tree missing its required heritage to deliver enough water to Ethiopia's environment, thereby rejecting Ethiopia's water and its prehistoric path to the deep underground aquifers within Ethiopia's landscape.

        The Australian Eucalyptus requires some water for its secondary survival strategy but rejects most of Ethiopia's precious water in fast-flowing torrents. This water rejection is the Australian tree's character as a foreign organism to the Ethiopian Highland, within a completely incompatible micro-biological soil and type of Nature. The Eucalyptus tree's damaging effects on the forest floor do not permit the Ethiopian biotope to effectively absorb, filter and distribute this water to the environment and, therefore, neither to Ethiopia's natural groundwater reservoirs.

        In Ethiopia, it is very scientifically evident how the Eucalyptus tree's impact on water resources works contrary to a healthy forest. By damaging water distribution, the Eucalyptus tree also sharply reduces the water for the citizens. In the past, this phenomenon of naturally accumulated water occurred with high efficiency in the indigenous forest of Ethiopia. Ethiopia's Indigenous forests and plants created vital water-preserving mechanisms in the past and had an overwhelmingly positive effect on Ethiopia's early and historical civilization. 

        Thanks to Ethiopia's native trees' optimized heritage of securing healthy topsoil and the web's undergrowth, this early civilization in Ethiopia built a high and prosperous culture. Then in the history of the past, Ethiopia was enriched by a tremendous amount of naturally purified spring water that made the strong base for almost everything required in this past high civilization and, hopefully, promising potential for future modern society.


        Water Technologies of Historical Civilizations


        The History of the Environment

        Underground Technology & Reservoirs

        These historically and very early developed technical and geological-based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water that are often technically complex and aesthetically exquisite. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Thus these historical technologies are the basis of ancient and today's civilizations, providing the required surpluses for the most crucial development of original and modern achievements - in progress, health and prosperity. Water to the Capital




        Ethiopia's Unique Highland Landscape and Climate

        Regarding Ethiopia's unique climate in the seasons, with months of heavy downpours over the country's characteristic rugged landscape topography followed by months of blistering sunshine, difficulties naturally arise for the survival of planted saplings. The long prehistoric Nature's evolutionary optimized stability in sheer strength and water absorption found in the original native vegetation is thus often impossible to recreate with a simple planting of fragile young seedlings. Therefore, Ethiopia's neglected indigenous Nature demands knowledge and work before any sign of evident healing of the country's Nature and freshwater conservation. Consequently, it is often associated with incredible frustration to recreate healthy landscape biotopes by replanting native young plants on exposed eroded mountain slopes and devastated high plateaus. Instead, sporadically planted young plants will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from season months of midday's mercilessly blistering sunshine. This recreation of Nature's shielding functions needs, thus, the devoted work of restoration to regain the guardian effect from a lost indigenous forest with its endemic vegetation of shielding undergrowth.


        The Complications Of Indigenous Forest Restoration

        Thus, it is impossible to recreate a stable and healthy nature by replanting a few native trees on a devastated plateau; instead, these sporadically planted young plants on the table will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from the blistering seasonal sun. Furthermore, on the slopes, these young plants most often need some temporary stabilizer of the ground and protection in something that mimics the wind and sun-protective effect of many mother trees. In addition, sporadically placed young plants can only offer a very rudimentary and weak protective network against erosion; instead, there is the obvious risk that these young plants will, in all probability, soon perish in the struggle against the great forces of Nature.


        The Precarious and Fragile Restoration Of the Lost Nature

        Scientific research, which includes much time and labour for environmental restoration, demands massive protection projects to offer the young plants the replacement for the lost biotope and its vital natural protective properties. Hence, restoring a lost biotope is complicated and requires much work to recreate a reliable substitute for the missing shielding armour of the primaeval forest. Therefore, due to the absence of the essential protective functions of mother trees and other plants, enormous efforts are required to recreate these guardian functions for the tender indigenous seedlings, which otherwise do not survive the very exposed ground. Thus, this environmental restoration process includes a complex rebuild of habitat and ecology that was previously prehistorically self-evident as a crucial basis for the survival of all higher life forms.


         Trees, Shrubs, Flowers and Herbs 

        ______________________________________________________________________________



        Entoto Natural Park (Nursery)

        Plant a tree with Inside Ethiopia Tours

        Once we arrive on Entoto Mountain, where the capital city was first founded in 1886, you will undoubtedly feel like having mentholated topical ointment. Yes, we are not big fans of the Eucalyptus tree either! We want to promote indigenous seedling planting in Ethiopia by contributing to the Ethiopian Green Legacy. Our guide will accompany you in the local taxis up to the mountain. This is an excellent opportunity for you to experience Ethiopian commuting.


        _____________________________________________________________________


        Where do you plan to make your mark?

        The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association is working to plant more than 50,000 indigenous saplings in Entoto Natural Park and Zego Kebele Association in Ankober District to cover exposed areas.
          Organizations: Associations: Educational institutions: All those who love nature, together with our association, let's build a country with suitable air by planting saplings. Let's plant indigenous saplings together.


        As we believe, we are ready and waiting for you this year. The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association has planted native saplings in place of Eucalyptus trees with partner organizations and members in the Entoto natural park. He tells you that this year, come and plant saplings together to protect the environment. For more information:

        📞 Call +251 Ethiopia  

        011-5-15-88-02/ 09-22-97-27-46

        Ethiopian Heritage Trust - Plantation of Seedlings


        ___________________________________________________________________________________

        A not-for-profit charity supporting the Ethiopian Heritage Trust in Addis Ababa

        Donate

        The full amount you donate will be used in Ethiopia.
        The Trust is registered with Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs for Gift Aid.


        Ethiopian Heritage Trust (UK)

        ___________________________________________________________________________________


        Valuable trees and shrubs for Ethiopia:

        Identification, Propagation and

         Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones

        Azene Bekele-Tesemma

        Edited by
        Bo Tengnäs, Ensermu Kelbesa, Sebsibe Demissew and Patrick Maundu

        The contents of this handbook may be reproduced without special permission. However, acknowledgement of the source is requested. The photographers and artists concerned must be contacted for the reproduction of illustrations. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of World Agroforestry Centre.


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