Trees, Shrubs, Flowers and Herbs


Annex 2.

Table of Trees, Shrubs, Flowers and Herbs to Introduce in the

Entoto Natural Park. Description of Characters of Seedlings

to be Planted in the Park Area


Table 1 is based on a meeting at the National Herbarium with Sue Edwards, editor of the Flora "Some Wild Flowering Plants of Ethiopia" (Edwards 1976). Some of the plants in the table are already present in the Entoto area but in various quantities. Some species belong to open areas and some are forest plants. (A detailed inventory of the vegetation of Entoto started in October 1994.)

To get an idea of what can be grown in the Entoto Natural Park, table 2 shows the composition of different vegetation stratas in the Menagesha State Forest, set together by Dr. Sebsebe Demissew at National Herbarium (published in Mountain Research and Development Studies Vol. 8, number 2, May 1988).



The indigenous Podocarpus falcatus (P. gracilior) tree is scarce
on Entoto; it seems that it can no longer give surviving progeny
in the barren, eroded, exposed lands created by Eucalyptus
planted surrounding. A brittle and eroded clay crust resulted
from the imprudent international introduction of the
Australian Eucalyptus tree over a hundred years ago.

Table 1.
Acanthus sennii (fence)
Athrixia rosmarinifolia
Arundinaria alpina (grass - bamboo)
Arundo donax
Bartsia longiflora (shrub)
Bidens sp.
Buddleia polystachya (shrub)
Campanula edulis
Canarina eminii
Carduus ellenbeckii
Carduus nyassanus (weed)
Carissa edulis (shrub)
Cassia singueana (shrub)
Clerodendron myricoides (shrub)
Commelina diffusa
Crassocephalum macropappum
Craterostigma plantagineum
Crepis rueppellii
Crinum ornatum
Delphinium dasycaulon
Delphinium wellbyi
Dianthus longiglumis
Echinops hispidus
Epilobium hirsutum
Gloriosa superba (climber)
Gnidia glauca (shrub)
Habenaria sp. (Orchid Family)
Haemanthus multiflorus
Hagenia abyssinica
Helichrysum formosissumum (garden)
Holothrix sp. (Orchid Family)
Hypericum revolutum
Impatiens rothi (garden)
Ipomoea tenuirostris (climber)
Jasminum abyssinicum (a strong climber)
Justica sp. Echinops hispidus
Kalanchoe macrantha
Kalanchoe petitiana
Kniphofia foliosa
Leonotis velutina
Lotus corniculatus .
The Fortress (38) Requires Caution Towards the Canyon,
 Shown
 by the Assisting Map Loop (B). The Loop (14)
Surrounding the Gentle and Fascinating P
oints
 36 and 41-42, close to the Abyss & Waterfall.

Paths & Maps of the High Plateau
Merendera abyssinica
Moraea schimperi
Nymphaea coerulea (aquetic plant in fresh water)
Otostagia integrifolia (shrub)
Pelargonium multibracteatum
Petamens latifolius
Plectocephalus varians
Plectranthus barbatus
Polygonum setulosum
Primula verticillata
Pterolobium stellatum ( fence)
Rhus natalensis (shrub)
Rubus steudneri (climber)
Satyrium sp. (Orchid Family)
Scabiosa columbaria
Senecio gigas (shrub)
Solanum incanum (weed)
Sparmannia ricinocarpa (shrub)
Trifolium acaule
Trifolium schimperi
Veronia amygdalina (shrub)
Veronica glandulos



Table 2
. Floristic composition of Menagesha State Forest. 
In the years to come, as the saplings mature, they will serve as
a stabilizer for Ethiopia's landscape; this will prevent erosion,
reduce the risk of drought or flash floods, and restore the
landscape's ability to store water in the mountains and the
soil. The native forest and scrub are essential for creating
groundwater in the natural mountain reservoirs of under-
ground aquifers by the vegetation's crucial effect in
distributing rainwater and preventing brittle ground.
 The Torrential Rains and Erosion
From Dr. Sebsebe Demissew.

TALL TREES (15-35 m)
Juniperus procera
Podocarpus gracilior


MEDIUM AND SMALL SIZED TREES (up to 15 m)
Allophylus abyssinicus
Ekebergia capensis
Euphorbia obovalifolia
Ilex mitis
Myrica salicifolia
Olea europea L. spp. africana
Olinia aequipetala
Pittosporum viridiflorum
Pygeum africanum
Rapanea melanophloeos
Schefflera abyssinica Teclea nobilis


SHRUBS
Agauria salicifolia
Besama abyssinica
Calpurnea aurea
Carissa edulis
Clausena anisata
Hence, Nature's large biodiversity and shielding mechanism
 of the native seedlings executed at the old-time its natural
ability to protect and reinforce this precious ground for
 the young native vegetation's required natural care.

Plant defence against herbivory 



Biodiversity


Crotalaria lachnocarpa 
Discopodioum penninervum
Dovyalis abyssinica
Dovyalis verrucosa
Erica arborea
Galiniera coffeoides
Gnidia glauca
Halleria lucida
Hypericum lanceolatum
Maesa lanceolata
Maytenus addat
Maytenus arbutifolia
Maytenus heterophylla
Myrsine africana
Nuxia congesta
Osyris arborea
Otostegia minucci
Rhamnus prinoides
Rhus glutinosa
Rhus vulgaris
Rosa abyssinica
Satureja biflora
Spiniluma oxycantha


PACHYCAULS
Lobelia giberoa
Senecio gig

LIANAS
Embelia schimperi
Jasminum abyssinicum
Jasminum stans 
Periploca linearifolia
Phytolacca dodecandra
Rubus apetalus
Stephania abyssinical
Urera hypselodendron
Veronia amygdalina
Veronia leopoldii


EPIPHYTES
Diaphananthe schimperiana
Peperomia tetraphylla
Sedum epidendrum
Stolzia repens
Umbilicus botryoides



Podocarpus falcatus This plant carries a unique heritage that can
be very important for the Park's legacyIt was originally picked
 as seed from the mother tree in the circle (B) just to the west of 
the path at the left of the area (39) and clearly above (38)

HERBS / FERNS
Adiantum thalictroides
Asplenium abyssinicum
Asplenium aethiopicum
Cheilanthes farinosa
Drypteris inaequalis
Pleopelis macrocarpa
Polystichum setiferum
Pteris cretial
Pteris dentata
Pteris quandriaurita
Thelypteris pozoi

OTHERS
Agrostis quinqueseta
Agrostis schimperiana
Barleria ventricosa
Cardamine africana
Carex johnstonii
Carex. bequaertii
Crassula alsinoides
Cyperus fischerianus
Geranium aculeolatum
Geranium arabicum
Helichrysum cymosum
Holothrix archnoidea
Hypoestes verticillaria
Impatiens hochstetteri
Kyllinga odorata
Pentas schimperiana
Pterocephalus frutescens
Pilea rivularis
Satureja biflora
Selaginella abyssinica
Veronica abyssinica

Table 3. Tree seedlings required for the Entoto Natural Park. Third draft (5.4 94). Dag Rudin

The altitude of the Park is about 2 700 -3 000 m a.s.l. but the slope towards the south will improve the climate in a direction of about -300 m altitude. This minimum calculated altitude for the choice of species will be about 2 400 m a.s.l.
 




* PLANT can supply seedlings for these trees in the quantity required in time for the planting season next year - June 1995. The orders for the plants would have to be placed fairly soon. The price of the seedlings would be 50c or less.


Entoto Natural Park (Nursery)

? The species might fail to survive

# Seed available at the National Tree Seed Center

o Plants can be raised by Region 14 Tree Nurseries up to a number of 100 000.

Notes
1. In a mature forest, there are approx. 250 trees per hectare. To allow for natural selection etc. 500 trees per hectare are required to start a forest. Assuming no trees in the Park, the number of seedlings required would be 750 000 (if the Park area is 15 square kilometres).

It is reasonable to plan for planting 1/3 of the area during 1995. Thus 250 000 seedlings should be planted out and then 300 000 seedlings should be raised (HΓ₯kan Blanck and Pia Englund, Entoto Natural Park 1995).




Ethiopia's Unique Highland Landscape and Climate

Regarding Ethiopia's unique climate in the seasons, with months of heavy downpours over the country's characteristic rugged landscape topography followed by months of blistering sunshine, difficulties naturally arise for the survival of planted saplings. The long prehistoric Nature's evolutionary optimized stability in sheer strength and water absorption found in the original native vegetation is thus often impossible to recreate with a simple planting of fragile young seedlings. Therefore, Ethiopia's neglected indigenous Nature demands knowledge and work before any sign of evident healing of the country's Nature and freshwater conservation. Consequently, it is often associated with incredible frustration to recreate healthy landscape biotopes by replanting native young plants on exposed eroded mountain slopes and devastated high plateaus. Instead, sporadically planted young plants will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from season months of midday's mercilessly blistering sunshine. This recreation of Nature's shielding functions needs, thus, the devoted work of restoration to regain the guardian effect from a lost indigenous forest with its endemic vegetation of shielding undergrowth.


The Complications Of Indigenous Forest Restoration

Thus, it is impossible to recreate a stable and healthy nature by replanting a few native trees on a devastated plateau; instead, these sporadically planted young plants on the table will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from the blistering seasonal sun. Furthermore, on the slopes, these young plants most often need some temporary stabilizer of the ground and protection in something that mimics the wind and sun-protective effect of many mother trees. In addition, sporadically placed young plants can only offer a very rudimentary and weak protective network against erosion; instead, there is the obvious risk that these young plants will, in all probability, soon perish in the struggle against the great forces of Nature.


The Precarious and Fragile Restoration Of the Lost Nature

 Science, much time and labour are needed for environmental restoration; this demands massive protection projects to offer the young plants the replacement for the lost biotope and its vital natural protective properties. Hence, restoring a lost biotope is complicated and requires much work to recreate a reliable substitute for the lost shielding armour of the primaeval forest. Therefore, due to the absence of the essential protective functions of mother trees and other plants, enormous efforts are required to recreate these guardian functions for the tender indigenous seedlings, which otherwise do not survive the very exposed ground. Thus, this process of environmental restoration includes what was previously prehistorically self-evident as a crucial basis for the survival of all higher life forms.


There are profound contradictions in judgment in the use of berms versus swales. Hence, the core of this evaluation is a comparison regarding small surrounding ridges (berms) downhill of the saplings, which prevent water loss downhill the slope vs the quite contrary appearance of uphill water absorbing trenches (swales) just above saplings following traditional contour lines of the landscape's slopes. Since trenches or swales filled with water constitute a dangerous lubrication with a low friction load on the slopes, an imminent risk for landslides prevails. Thereby swales are an option on the planes, while separate berms win as an option for slopes.  Of course, the more sapling protective method combines berms with swales or keylines.

Planting Saplings
While these previously mentioned half-circular small backfillings (berms) appear suitable on a hillside to protect the growth of individually placed saplings, the keyline permaculture seems like the deeper irrigation, hence more practical when many saplings follow along gentle slopes. However, where Keyline technology is available, it often appears to be a more desirable option over swales since they are less obstructive despite their similarity to the methods of swales. They provide a slightly invisible gradient deviation from the landscape's contour lines and heal themselves within the landscape. Thus, while berms fit individual saplings, the keyline solution often seems more appropriate than berms when many saplings propagate along the keyline on a pleasant slope or swales on a modest leaning field.


Berms and Swales VS 

Terraces & Micro-Basins

With hillsides' gradient diminutive in the landscape, swales are an option but not recommended on a mountainside. Therefore, caution prevails regarding this environmental swales restoration method due to the risk of landslides caused by swales creating too much lubricating water weight. Hence, a danger persists since these swales initiate landslides by the sudden water infiltration in an unstable soil configuration, especially on a mountainside. When the slopes are too steep for any modest restoration of the ground's stability, the classical option with terracing is often a secure choice. Here, with attention to keyline design permaculture deviation from the contour line, classical terracing obtains historical reliability. However, excluding terracing in a more gentle terrain, the keyline design permaculture remains a careful restoration option, where the ploughed grooves deviate slightly downwards from the mountain's contour lines. Thus, keyline design permaculture often remains the appropriate way to create a stable water supply and ground for the saplings. Therefore, exposed mountainsides often require a keyline design gradient to optimize the water flow over the terraces. These methods and even terraced micro-basins often remain the only suitable option to obtain a sound foundation for the saplings on a steeper hillside.

Water and Land Restoration

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The Science of Indigenous Ancient Trees


DNA Selections of Seeds
(Oxford Academic)

Choosing the Right Mother Tree for Seed

The distant location but within the same country, developed fauna and flora have undergone an extremely long evolutionary optimization to best adapt to the unique condition of its geological and surrounding genetic characteristics. The unique habitat in a particular region within a country imprinted the native indigenous to receive their distinctive property of plant and wildlife depending on the remoteness unique climate. 

The Importance of Seed's Evolutionary Heritage
Hence, due to this isolated location on a country's mountainside or within its secluded gorge, the endemic tree created the specificity of their genetic heritage and the soil's uniqueness. Therefore, the trees' evolutionary connection to a country's landscape makes a precious legacy for their seeds, which inherits well-adapted genetic characteristics to the location's biological uniqueness. 


Assessing Seeds Based on the Climate Zones of the Country

Hence, the genetic legacy's impact in Ethiopia's various climates and altitudes creates trees that, although belonging to the same species, developed a difference in genetic heritage to deal with these different climate zones. Thus, making the mistake of using the seed from a tree with its genetic origin from a moist and shady gorge as seedlings on a dry southern slope undermines these trees' ability to survive and other organisms, including human's existence.
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Plant a Tree with Inside Ethiopia Tours

Plant a tree with Inside Ethiopia Tours

Once we arrive on Entoto Mountain, where the capital city was first founded in 1886, you will undoubtedly feel like having mentholated topical ointment. Yes, we are not big fans of the Eucalyptus tree either! We want to promote indigenous seedling planting in Ethiopia by contributing to the Ethiopian Green Legacy. Our guide will accompany you in the local taxis up to the mountain. This is an excellent opportunity for you to experience Ethiopian commuting.


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Where do you plan to make your mark?

The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association is working to plant more than 50,000 indigenous saplings in Entoto Natural Park and Zego Kebele Association in Ankober District to cover exposed areas.
  Organizations: Associations: Educational institutions: All those who love nature, together with our association, let's build a country with suitable air by planting saplings. Let's plant indigenous saplings together.


As we believe, we are ready and waiting for you this year. The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association has planted native saplings in place of Eucalyptus trees with partner organizations and members in the Entoto natural park. He tells you that this year, come and plant saplings together to protect the environment. For more information:

πŸ“ž Call +251 Ethiopia  

011-5-15-88-02/ 09-22-97-27-46

Ethiopian Heritage Trust - Plantation of Seedlings

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Handbook 

Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia:

Identification, Propagation and

 Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones

Azene Bekele-Tesemma

Edited by
Bo TengnΓ€s, Ensermu Kelbesa, Sebsibe Demissew and Patrick Maundu

The contents of this handbook may be reproduced without special permission. However, acknowledgement of the source is requested. The photographers and artists concerned must be contacted for reproduction of illustrations. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of World Agroforestry Centre.


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Ethiopian Heritage Trust

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Ethiopian Heritage Trust (UK)
Donate: https://www.ethiopianheritagetrustuk.org/donate

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