The Torrential Rains and Erosion

The scientific and prehistoric phenomenon and background

 To the large rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands

The humid and warm air that regularly arrives during the rainy season from the Indian Ocean and then rises over the Ethiopian highlands is a meteorological phenomenon, known as Orographic Precipitation (OP). This meteorological phenomenon is very well known, and its explanation is evident that the incoming clouds transform their moisture into rain as they rise over a high mountain mass. The landscape in this picture illustrates the circumstances that affect the erosion and its relationship to the groundwater levels. Alluvial Water (AW) can be crucial for creating water to the natural groundwater reservoirs and the recovery of the nutrient-rich sediment. The loss of this fertile soil is frequently occurring and increasing without these wetlands. Instead, this nutrient-rich sediment should be welcome as risks or even cause a recurring obstacle to both farms and tourist areas.

A remote panorama image over the rising highland of Ethiopia

The view here in the image (1) is very remote and with and with a distance that is roughly simplified corresponds to a picture from a point far north of Ethiopia and then look south with a compressed image of the Indian Ocean to the left and the ever-rising Ethiopian highlands to the right in the picture. The image (1) shows the potential of the natural mountain ridges and their ability to create long-lasting deposits of water in the rock massif and the increased evaporation leading to further rainfall. Also crucial here are the underground and geological compounds that slowly filter this water and transform it into a more permanent and long-lasting groundwater in the more deep-lying aquifers of the rock massif.

The Waters of the Nile River and its flows from the Highlands of Ethiopia

Civilizations and Mountainous Rainfall.
The precipitation that falls on high-lying mountain masses is usually of utmost importance for the opportunities to develop a stable and prosperous civilization for the societies below. This cultural dependency is a distinct and regular phenomenon that is recurring throughout history and today's cultures. The erosive forces (EF) can be devastating and contradictory, and this is because rainfall should usually be welcome. The reason why significant problems nevertheless arise is generally a lack of higher civilization, political turmoil or only a despotic and ignorant society in harsh control by a highly corrupted political elite.

Historical Recurring Devastation of Water and Vegetation.
Due to this background of shortcomings in knowledge within international cultures, reoccurring through history follows a deterioration of the environment. This destruction of the environment occurs since an ignorant political elite, prevail by manipulating in reluctance for the temporary costs regarding the concerns for humans and the country. Naturally, it follows severe obstructions and even fears among the population for exposing their ability and motivation for accumulating and securely storing these massive amounts of rains and their immense seasonal deluges. Thus, the political elite created a life-threatening situation against inhabitants who in their despair for the sake of their families dared to undertake any necessary technology or work to promote these water masses to benefit the population during periods of heat and drought. A different easy way to explain this intricate turmoil of human behaviour is that the native vegetation is negatively affected and, therefore, the loss in the soil layers' natural strength.

Indigenous Vegetation for Creation of Groundwater.
The natural forest (NF) area with the native undergrowth is crucial for conserving species richness in both animals and plants. This wild forest and scrub are also essential for the creation of groundwater to the natural mountain reservoirs in the underground aquifers. Naturally, very high importance should priority the natural forest on the mountain massifs.

Native Vegetation and its Unique Soils.
These phenomena are entirely interconnected, and the indigenous vegetation is crucial for distributing rainwater and preventing erosion. This original soil exists in natural areas with complete undergrowth and indigenous biological micro-structure; unique to such places as established national parks with its superior qualities in the ability to withstand erosion.

A Legacy of Optimized Genetic Code for Protection of Water and Soil.
Through these careful considerations of the reality appears a complex and beautiful picture of lifeforms were they by aeons of old evolutionary networks optimized their genetic code. Thus by this evolution of antiquity, the natural forest obtained the immense strength for the groundwater's creation and its extreme capacity to withstand erosion. This detailed study below shows the picture (4) the potential of the natural mountain ridges and their ability to create long-lasting deposits of water (MW) in the rock massif and the increased evaporation leading to further rainfall. Also crucial here are the underground and geological compounds that slowly filter this water and transform it into a more permanent and long-lasting groundwater in the more deep-lying aquifers of the rock massif.

The Harsh Reality of Human Requirements for Food Production.
The available groundwater in image (5) quantity decreases continuously from a high amount of filtered water (FW) to the left and lower portion of filtered water (FW) to the right in the picture (5) where it also shows the lost ground moisture in a fast-flowing runoff (RO). Moreover, in complexity, it can often be misleading and easy to assume that the trees on the left in the image (5) in the natural forest (NF) would consume water resources. However, this misleading assumption is valid and then if the trees are judged artificial and as independent examples and standalone or a few trees in demanding circumstances.  

Strength in Diversity and its Evolutionary Optimized Network.
What seems too complicated to describe in biological terms can sometimes be given a simple parable opportunity. In short, a few stones is nothing of a hinder for a flowing torrent, but very well by a firmly anchored uniform stone construction. Consequently, in sweat and thirst, the few rocks are lost in thirst toil and poverty, while the opposite is usually the case with the anchored unit and its amounts of valuable dammed water at hand to use when the drought occurs. Of course, the natural forest (NF) consists of many complex biological phenomena with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship that has an extremely ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the environment. Therefore, the native vegetation of the highland and its trees can be considered and scientifically analyzed with considerable help from the methods used for very complicated dam constructions.

A Vertical Relation Between Images (5) and (7).
This image (5) mainly contains what appears in the other models and can also serve as an above-mentioned vertical description of what occurs in the image (7). A qualitative and quantitative of the changes in the water is here obvious when exposed to three different soil and nature types in the image (5) with an increased runoff (RO) to the right in the picture which is further clarified by the figure (7).

Comparing Soils After Human Activities.
This image (7) represents a practical study of two types of soils' ability to withstand erosion and their ability to collect and distribute this water to the groundwater reservoirs. Not included in this image are the overlying and perforated waters trays that fulfil the function of imitating an average rainfall. Here picture (7) is shown the water permeability and how the type of soil that exists also determines the storing capacity water in the upper soil layers.

The Natural Vegetation and its Importance for Soil and Water Preservation.
In the picture (6), the undergrowth roots are also clearly visible (R) and their significance as primary soil stabilizers but yet concealed its vital work as overwhelming nature creators and this by the more subtle function like an intricate network of vertically working water distributors. This vertical water distribution from the plants' roots follows a natural evolutionary optimization process of an intricate symbiosis between the plants and the soil. Through inheritance over many millions of years, the plants passed through aeons of evolutionary genetic optimization to distribute the superficial rainwater to reach deeper regions and provide the plants with a significantly increased and crucial depot of water. The picture also shows the immense importance of the native vegetation's function as reinforcement and structural strength for soil layers. These soil layers (A) exist thanks to the plants' strengthening with their multi-branched roots and the protective top layer of the previous season's plant deposits.

Intervals of Undisturbed Soil for Creation of Clean Water and Protection of the Ground.
Picture (7) and the right (B) show the soil's apparent difficulty resisting erosion. At the same time, the No-till ground on the left side (A), surrounding the tillage field provides significantly better resistance to decay and a significantly increased distribution of water to the groundwater reservoirs. The pictures (7) this phenomenon is shown (A) by increased resistance to decay. This filtered water can then transform into purified water within the hidden cliff chambers (aquifers). This water accumulates during the rainy season, seeping in a continuous flow to the lower surrounding regions. Therefore, cities below the mountain massif depend to a very high degree, including agriculture through these large quantities of high altitude and situated geologically stored mountain water.

The Creation of Water with Respect for the Soil.
Here the picture (8) it is clearly shown how the tillage field example (B) on the right means about twice the amount lost in the runoff in comparison with the No-till soil on the left (A). Also, the left No-till soil (A) with its water tray display considerably less erosive sediment than the water soil from tillage field on the right (B).

Two Concealed Trays for Water Infiltration.
Behind the front picture is hidden two more water trays (FW) that fulfil the purpose of showing the potential and amount of the water within the distributed groundwater as well as more shallow spring water.

Erosion Related to Human Activities for Food Production.
Naturally, the enhanced erosion follows the cultivable land shown here in point (B) and often so severe that gives a visible legacy that remains for aeons as destruction and impossible for further cultivation. The No-tilled land (A) surrounding the cultivable area with tillage cropland provides significantly better resistance to erosion and a significantly increased distribution of water to the groundwater reservoirs. However, in this study shown in the images (7) and (8), natural indigenous vegetation is not included with its optimized qualities. 

Ethiopia with the Background of Deep Contradictions from the Australian Eucalyptus Tree.
In Ethiopia's situation, then the alien eucalyptus tree species provides a clear and troubling picture of what occurs with the surrounding undergrowth due to such hostile and not a native tree. The artificially introduced eucalyptus tree caused this demise and following lack of Ethiopia's native scrub and this by the poisonous substance of the eucalyptus trees' foliage and roots. This alien substance causes the erosion to drastically to increase in the surrounding area of ​​the eucalyptus tree. 

The Importance of Indigenous Trees and Vegetation to the Hillsides.
In the landscape, these eucalyptus trees' roots often appear as if they are elevated, even on a strangely raised grid of single root cones that can vary in height. These high root cones can protrude vertically upwards to the one-meter height at exposed locations adjacent to steeper slopes. Thus, they clearly show that the former soil layer, until recently, was one meter higher level in the steeper hillsides. In the case of soil configuration and its stability in general, all these layers should be reinforced by the roots of trees and covered by undergrowth and thus obtain strength and durability. This type of habitat then forms massive water accumulating capacity and crucial importance for creating groundwater in both the mountain massif and on lower wetlands. 

The History of the Environment.

"Residue Cover on the Soil Surface 1 of 3
During DakofaFest 2012, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in South Dakota focused on Soil Health at their booth in the USDA tent at DakotaFest.

 The Soil Expo display run at the NRCS 20120 DakotaFest presentation demonstrated the soil erosion and sedimentation losses from conventionally tilled samples verses No-Till cropland samples.

 An experiment was performed on two "cut-outs" of soil - one from a No-till field and one from a conventional tillage field. "Rain" was put on the samples to see how the soil structure reacted. The No-till field had better infiltration with much less water runoff that was also more clear. The photo shows the conventional tillage field had more runoff that with soil particles in the water.

 Once the "rain" was over, the two trays were examined. The No-till tray had water infiltration through the bottom. This meant that the water had good penetration to the soil profile. The bottom of the conventional tillage sample was almost entirely dry meaning that the water had runoff and not infiltrated the top few inches of the soil profile.

( USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in South Dakota)

The scientific explanation of evolution within plants and their relation to the production of soils in synergy symbiosis

Thus, clarifies the importance of purified water resources obtained by the nature of indigenous trees, plants and hence their overwhelming significance to the economy and health of ordinary and high-tech societies. The prehistoric and evolutionary and non-human cultivated plants constitute the resting tool for the unique and natural optimization of the soil structure and its inherent resistance to various natural disturbances. Through this, the evolution process created inheritance over many millions of years allowed plants and trees to evolve its genetic pattern into a harmoniously and profoundly synergy working symbiosis to its surrounding ground. Due to this ancient evolutionary optimized ecology, the plants genetically evolved into formidable distributors of the superficial rainwater and allowed this water to penetrate the soil's otherwise porous resistant structure. Thus the native, ancient plants loosened up the soil's otherwise dense fabrics by their intricate fibrous roots in symbiosis with the surrounding microorganisms. Thanks to the remote geological evolution of plants' and ground-living organisms' development, they obtained the primary tool to open the earth's surface layers' permeability.  These prehistoric plants thereby counter-acted the resistance within the dense-packed ground and opened the soils' porous permeability. This basic phenomenon between plants and soils allowed the water to pass down to deeper soil layers and aquifers' regions. These native trees gave the earth a significantly increased and specified deposit in quantity and quality of purified water and even more distributed this water into giant fossil aquifers of the natural mountain and present desert areas.

This deposited water is critical to the plant's ability to withstand drought and heat, which creates an intimate connection of symbiosis between the evolution of vegetation and the created soil. The creation in sequential optimization in evolutionary prehistory appeared to increase the indigenous plants' ability to deliver the water down to the deeper soil layers and the natural groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Furthermore, thanks to this increased underground water, the plants developed their ability to withstand the harsh conditions during prolonged droughts. The very natural results follow with sharply increased production of healthy soils by the native plants' natural seasonal downfall foliage and the microorganisms' work to produce soil sediment by composting debris.

  • The amounts of rain that are large enough to create torrential forces are widespread and very natural.

  • This torrential rain is a fundamental weather phenomenon that, in addition to automatic watering of crops, is also the source that fills the natural groundwater reservoirs.

  • A devastating danger, however, occurs if original vegetation has been removed and created exposed land surfaces without the necessary reinforcement due to the lack of roots and the overlying network of twigs with undergrowth.

  • These network of plants and roots do not only create enormous strength for the soil layers. With this, the concomitant resistant to erosion but furthermore is a gigantic creator of spring water to natural groundwater reservoirs in the cliff massif.

  • To interfere with this purifying and protective connection of ancient synergy is very serious because this groundwater phenomenon is of fundamental importance. Here the vegetation and the soil layers accumulating effect is crucial as both a water purifying filter and, furthermore, the only source as the primary distributor to the natural underground water reservoirs (Aquifers).

  • A hostile or aggressive influence or manipulation of this, which is the planet's and the very substance itself in the origin of life, leads not only to malnutrition, starvation, biological impoverishment. However, it also is the ground to repetitive fatal landslides with ruined buildings and, as a consequence, an ever-present catastrophe of crushed dreams and long-standing misery.

  • The creation of the natural soil layers with its unique biological and mechanical properties characterizes each specific environment and its biotope. This unique soil character not only controls the possible pattern for reproduction and survival for each life form within the habitat but furthermore is a direct result of its biotope's unique nature.

  • With this hard-wired symbiotic relation between soil and organisms is evolutionary a unique biological habitat established since a far remote prehistorical time and this as a unique biotope and environment for its plants and wildlife including all of its indigenous vegetation and species of trees.

  • This interaction is a compassionate biological symbiotic relation of the native plants, and their created soil gives a very delicate and fragile biological and geological synergy. Since this ancient synergy of biology and soil structure, the result follows injury to one of these natural components constituents undesirable effects that negatively affect the other forms of life and their accompanying unique soil type.

The Eucalyptus Introduction Created an Environmental Disaster.

(Updated  2017-08-31)

** This tree caused a catastrophic erosion and accompanied a sharp reduction of both groundwater and surface water in rivers and streams. The ecological catastrophe becomes a tragic and evident fact that can be viewed virtually everywhere on steep slopes around the Capital where the earth is bare, naked, heavily eroded and very infertile. 
However, Eucalyptus tree produces very fast a straight, productive timber. It should, therefore, be considered a good tree for forestry on the plains where precipitation cannot create sudden torrents with destructive forces and the resulting erosion with its chaos of water shortage and malnutrition.

This apparent and aesthetically pleasing study shows with extreme clarity how even the smallest vegetation's ability to prevent erosion.


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