The Torrential Rains and Erosion

The scientific and prehistoric phenomenon and background

 To the large rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands


The humid and warm air that regularly arrives during the rainy season from the Indian Ocean and then rises over the Ethiopian highlands is a meteorological phenomenon known as Orographic Precipitation (OP). This meteorological phenomenon is very well known, and its explanation is evident that the incoming clouds transform their moisture into rain as they rise over a high mountain mass. The landscape in this picture illustrates the circumstances that affect erosion and its relationship to the groundwater levels. Alluvial Water (AW) can be crucial for creating water for the natural groundwater reservoirs and the salvage of the nutrient-rich sediment. The loss of this fertile soil is frequently occurring and increases without these wetlands when instead, this nutrient-rich sediment should be a welcome contribution to both farms' soil refinement and tourist attraction areas with original nature and wildlife,

A remote panorama image over the rising highland of Ethiopia

The view here in the image (1) is very remote and with and with a distance that is roughly simplified corresponds to a picture from a point far north of Ethiopia and then look south with a compressed image of the Indian Ocean to the left and the ever-rising Ethiopian highlands to the right in the picture. Image (1) shows the potential of the natural mountain ridges and their ability to create long-lasting deposits of water in the rock massif and the increased evaporation leading to further rainfall. Also crucial here are the underground and geological compounds that slowly filter this water and transform it into a more permanent and long-lasting groundwater in the more deep-lying aquifers of the rock massif.


The Waters of the Nile River and its flows from the Highlands of Ethiopia


Civilizations and Mountainous Rainfall.
The precipitation that falls on high-lying mountain masses is usually of utmost importance for the opportunities to develop a stable and prosperous civilization for the societies below. This cultural dependency is a distinct and regular phenomenon recurring throughout history and today's cultures. The erosive forces (EF) can be devastating and contradictory, and this is because rainfall should usually be welcome. The natural forest (NF) area with the native undergrowth is crucial for the creation of naturally stored water in the groundwater reservoirs and thereby conserving species richness in animals and plants.  Nevertheless, significant problems are generally a lack of higher civilization, political turmoil, or a despotic and ignorant society under harsh control by a highly corrupted political elite.


Historical Recurring Devastation of Water and Vegetation.
Due to this background of shortcomings in knowledge within international cultures, reoccurring through history follows a deterioration of the environment. This destruction of the environment occurs since an ignorant political elite prevails by manipulating reluctance for the temporary costs regarding the concerns for humans and the country. Naturally, it follows severe obstructions and even fears among the population for exposing their ability and motivation to accumulate and securely store these massive rains and their immense seasonal deluges. Thus, the political elite created a life-threatening situation against inhabitants who, in their despair for the sake of their families, dared to undertake any necessary technology or work to promote these water masses to benefit the population during periods of heat and drought. A different easy way to explain this intricate turmoil of human behaviour is that the native vegetation is negatively affected, causing the loss in the soil layers' natural strength.


The Native Highland Forest with its Water Harbouring Properties, 
In Surprisingly Similarities to Highly Complex Dam Constructions.


This picture views the importance of storing the
 high-lying mountain water instead of rejecting it
  in rapid flows.This stored water in the mountain
 massif is crucial in the following years. It thus
 provides the lower-lying villages with a stable
 flow of purified water during the year.

Indigenous Vegetation and Soils for Creation of Groundwater.
The native forest and scrub are essential for creating groundwater in the natural mountain reservoirs of the underground aquifers. Naturally, very high importance should priority the natural forest on the mountain massifs. These phenomena are entirely interconnected, and the indigenous vegetation is crucial for distributing rainwater and preventing erosion. This original soil exists in natural areas with complete undergrowth and indigenous biological micro-structure, unique to such places as established national parks with superior qualities in the ability to withstand erosion.

A Legacy of Optimized Genetic Code for Protection of Water and Soil.
Through these careful considerations of the reality appears a complex and beautiful picture of lifeforms were they by aeons of old evolutionary networks optimized their genetic code. Thus by this evolution of antiquity, the natural forest obtained immense strength for the groundwater's creation and its extreme capacity to withstand erosion. Furthermore, it's essential to understand the precarious synergy between the native plants with their highly advanced biology and the ground they created during aeons. Erosion Prevention Ideas




The Complexity Of  Advanced Forces Within Nature

However, the highly advanced complexity of nature can often be misleading, thereby assuming that the trees should be demanding consumers of water resources around the environment of these natural forests. Despite this hasty judgement, the complexity in this misleading assumption is valid if the trees are judged artificial and as independent examples and standalone or a few trees in demanding circumstances, then especially on a sunny and dry mountain massif. This fragile example of a few trees on an exposed high plateau is the opposite of the dense native forest that creates a harbouring wall against the great forces of torrential deluges. Furthermore, prevail powerful phenomenons due to the intricate biology of the primaeval forest's lushness and its ability to saturate the aquifers within the actual depth of the mountain massif's total configuration.



It's a well-known fact that the natural highland
 aquifers are not sufficient to supply the large
 metropolitan area's total needs, but complex
 construction is required. However, using the
 native vegetation and soil remain vital in the
 water's purification process before storing
 the water for the future year's needs.

Strength in Diversity and its Evolutionary Optimized Network.
What seems too complicated to describe in standard terms of biology can sometimes be given a simple parable opportunity. In short, a few stones is nothing of a hinder for a flowing torrent but very well by a firmly anchored uniform stone construction. Consequently, in sweat and thirst, the few rocks are lost in toil and poverty, while the opposite is usually the case with the anchored unit and its amounts of valuable dammed water at hand to use when the drought occurs.

The Close Relation of High-Tech to the Native Highland Forest. 
Of course, the natural forest consists of many complex biological phenomena with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship that has a highly ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the environment. Therefore, the water-retaining properties of native highland vegetation and its trees can be considered and scientifically analysed with considerable help from the methods used for highly complex dam and reservoir constructions.


The Harsh Reality of Human Requirements for Food Production.
Crucial here are the underground and geological compounds that slowly filter this water and transform it into a more permanent and long-lasting groundwater in the more deep-lying aquifers of the rock massif. The creation of groundwater in image (5) quantity decreases continuously from a high amount of filtered water (FW) to the left in the picture (5) and a lower portion of filtered water (FW) to the right in the same image. To the right in the picture (5), it's also shown how a decrease in plants and trees caused an increased runoff (RO) and the lost ground moisture in a fast-flowing runoff (RO). Moreover, complexity can often be misleading and assume that the trees on the left in the image (5) would consume water resources in the natural forest (NF). However, this misleading assumption is valid if the trees are judged artificial and as independent examples and standalone or a few trees in demanding circumstances and not as a dense native forest. Instead, the natural indigenous highland forest has been genetically optimized since aeons to create a harbouring wall against the torrential deluges. 



With these examples regarding the enormous loss of
 drinking water and fertile soil, it seems natural to
 prioritise examining the possibility of harbouring
 and maintaining the purity of this water by
 preventing the devastating causes of erosion.

The Complexity Of Pure Water and Erosion.

This detailed study shows a picture (4) of the potential of the natural mountain ridges and their ability to create long-lasting deposits of water in the rock massifs' aquifers. The image (5) mainly contains what appears in the other models and can serve as an above-mentioned vertical description of what occurs in the image (7). A qualitative and quantitative of the changes in the water is here obvious when exposed to three different soil and nature types in the photo (5) with an increased runoff (RO) to the right in the picture, which is further clarified by the figure (7). This phenomenon is more clearly shown in the pictures (8) - (9) just below.

Comparing Soils After Human Activities.

This image (7) represents a practical study of two types of soils' ability to withstand erosion and their ability to collect and distribute this water to the groundwater reservoirs. Here (7) shows water permeability and how the soil type determines water storage capacity in the upper soil layers. Not included in this image are the overlying and perforated waters trays that fulfil the function of imitating an average rainfall.


The Indigenous Vegetation and Its 

Importance for Soil and Water Preservation.

In the picture (6), the undergrowth roots are clearly visible (R) and their significance as primary soil stabilizers but concealed is their vital work as overwhelming nature creators. This is by the more subtle function, like an intricate network of vertically working water distributors. This vertical water distribution from the plants' roots follows a natural evolutionary optimization process of a complex symbiosis between the plants and the soil. Through inheritance over millions of years, the plants passed through aeons of evolutionary genetic optimization to distribute the superficial rainwater to reach deeper regions and provide the plants with a significantly increased and crucial depot of water. The picture also shows the immense importance of the native vegetation's function as reinforcement and structural strength for soil layers. These soil layers (A) exist thanks to the plants' strengthening with their multi-branched roots and the protective top layer of the previous season's plant deposits. Picture (8) and the right (RO) with its runoff and the picture (9) - (B) and its runoff (RO) show together the soil's difficulty resisting erosion.

 

The Importance of Undisturbed Soil for Creation and Protection of Clean Water.

 The No-till ground on the left side in the image (9) - (A), shows the common surroundings or the seasonal field in rest. Compared to the tillage field, the No-till ground provides significantly better resistance against decay and a significantly increased distribution of water to the groundwater reservoirs. In pictures (9), this resistance to the decay phenomenon is shown (A) by increased resistance to loss of soil and its stored water. This filtered water can then transform into purified water within the hidden cliff chambers (aquifers). This water accumulates during the rainy season, seeping in a continuous flow to the lower surrounding regions. Therefore, cities below the mountain massif depend greatly on the highland's native vegetation, including agriculture through these significant-high altitudes' properties of geologically storing mountain water.

The Creation of Water with Respect for the Soil.
Here picture (9) it is clearly shown how the tillage field example (B) to the right in the photo means about twice the amount lost in the runoff in comparison with the No-till soil on the left (A). Also, the left No-till soil (A) with its water tray display considerably less erosive sediment in the water tray in comparison to the tillage field on the right in the images (9) - (10) - (B). The vertical connection of the (FW) arrows 1 and 2 in the image (8) appears very clearly as an effect of image (9). Thus, thanks to these two images' (8) and (9) the appears an obvious relationship due to the vertical arrows FWand FW2, shown in the lower part of the picture (8).


This image highlights the importance of the soil's structures
 for absorbing water. Therefore, it may be appropriate to
 interpret these pictures in the light of traditional check
 dams and their great importance in avoiding the loss
 of colossal amounts of water in heavy rainfall.
Further examples and ideas of check dams

Two Concealed Trays for the Infiltrated Water.

Behind the front picture (10) are hidden two more water trays (FW) that show the potential of two different soil substrate and their very deviant ability to extract water and transport it to the natural groundwater. Therefore, the picture reveals the highly variable results and the double effect in the amount of distributed groundwater water. The more shallow spring water in this example of the two concealed trays (FW) makes this effect of preserved water even more evident. These two concealed trays are shown more clearly in the image (9).

Erosion Related to Human Activities for Food Production.
The No-tilled land (A) surrounding the cultivable area with tillage cropland provided significantly better resistance to erosion and increased water distribution to the groundwater reservoirs. However, in this study, shown in images (9) and (10), natural indigenous vegetation is not included with its optimized qualities. Naturally, the enhanced erosion follows the cultivable land shown here in point (B); It is often so severe that it gives a visible legacy that remains for aeons as destruction and impossible for further cultivation. 


Ethiopia with the Background of Deep Contradictions from the Australian Eucalyptus Tree.
In Ethiopia's situation, the alien eucalyptus tree species provides a clear and troubling picture of the surrounding undergrowth due to such a hostile and not a native tree. The artificially introduced eucalyptus tree caused this demise and, following the lack of Ethiopia's native scrub, the poisonous substance of the eucalyptus trees' foliage and roots. This alien substance causes erosion to drastically increase in the surrounding area of ​​the eucalyptus tree.


The Importance of Indigenous Trees and Vegetation to the Hillsides.
In the landscape, these eucalyptus trees' roots often appear as if they are elevated, even on a strangely raised grid of single root cones that can vary in height. These high root cones can protrude vertically upwards to the one-meter height at exposed locations adjacent to steeper slopes. Thus, they clearly show that the former soil layer, until recently, was one meter higher level on the steeper hillsides. Soil configuration and its stability, in general, demonstrate that all these soil layers should be reinforced by the roots of trees and covered by indigenous undergrowth, thus obtaining strength and durability. This habitat type forms massive water accumulating capacity and is crucial for creating groundwater in the mountain massif and lower wetlands. 


The History of the Environment.

The Advanced Natural Sciences Of Environmental Restoration

In the case of trees and plants, their determination of the influence on water supply mustn't immediately offer an explanation model of the sudden and modern solutions and circumstances with any similarities to industries in common. Instead, this phenomenon is highly complex in biology through evolutionary time and environment, which requires an investigation that closely follows the very creation of the soil and its way of creating a reliable ground for vegetation. In the background of these lengthy and often prehistoric time cycles, the highly complex protection appears in creating a stable supply of drinking water. Thus, it is impossible to recreate a clean drinking water supply by replanting a few native trees on a devastated plateau; instead, these sporadically planted young plants on the table will require tender care with irrigation and often shade. Furthermore, on the slopes, these young plants most often need both some temporary stabilizer of the ground and protection in something that mimics the wind and sun-protective effect of a large number of mother trees. In addition, sporadically placed young plants can offer no protective products against erosion; instead, there is the obvious risk that these young plants will, in all probability, lose the fight against the great forces of nature. Hence, restoring a lost biotope that creates valuable drinking water is very complicated and requires much work, science and time in massive protection projects to offer the young plants the replacement for the lost biotope and its vital natural protective properties. Therefore, due to the absence of the essential protective functions of mother trees and other plants, enormous efforts are required to recreate these guardian functions that were previously self-evident as a crucial basis for the survival of most higher life forms.

___________________________________________________________________________________

"Residue Cover on the Soil Surface 1 of 3
During DakofaFest 2012, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in South Dakota focused on Soil Health at their booth in the USDA tent at DakotaFest.

 The Soil Expo display run at the NRCS 20120 DakotaFest presentation demonstrated the soil erosion and sedimentation losses from conventionally tilled samples versus No-Till cropland samples.

An experiment was performed on two "cut-outs" of soil - one from a No-till field and one from a conventional tillage field. "Rain" was put on the samples to see how the soil structure reacted. The photo shows the conventional tillage field had more runoff with more soil particles in the water. The No-till field had better infiltration with much less water runoff and was also more clear.

 Once the "rain" was over, the two trays were examined. The No-till tray had water infiltration through the bottom. This meant that the water had good penetration into the soil profile. The bottom of the conventional tillage sample was almost entirely dry, meaning that the water had runoff and not infiltrated the top few inches of the soil profile.

( USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in South Dakota)

___________________________________________________________________________________


The scientific explanation of evolution within plants and their relation to the production of soils in synergy symbiosis


This clarifies the importance of purified water resources obtained by the nature of indigenous trees plants and hence their overwhelming significance to the economy and health of ordinary and high-tech societies. The prehistoric, evolutionary, and non-human cultivated plants constitute the resting tool for the unique and natural optimization of the soil structure and its inherent resistance to various natural disturbances. Through this, the evolution process created inheritance over many millions of years. It allowed plants and trees to evolve their genetic pattern into a harmoniously and profoundly synergy working in symbiosis with its surrounding ground. Due to this ancient evolutionary optimized ecology, the plants genetically evolved into formidable distributors of the superficial rainwater and allowed this water to penetrate the soil's otherwise porous resistant structure. 

Thanks to the remote geological evolution of plants' and ground-living organisms' development, they obtained the primary tool to open the earth's surface layers' permeability. Thus, the roots of the native ancient plants liberated the otherwise water-repellent surface of the soil and gave the ground its water-absorbing properties. In this way, the native roots, together with microorganisms in symbiosis, interfered with the intricate work of cultivating the otherwise prevailing brittle and fragile soils. Hence, with their intricately stabilizing fibrous roots, these plants in ancient times made a symbiosis with surrounding microorganisms and initiated the beginning of time the path of the water to the soil and earth's groundwater reservoirs. These prehistoric plants thereby counter-acted the resistance within the dense-packed ground and opened the soils' porous permeability. This basic phenomenon between plants and soils allowed the water to pass to deeper soil layers and aquifers' regions. These native trees gave the earth a significantly increased and specified deposit in quantity and quality of purified water and even more distributed this water into giant fossil water aquifers of the natural mountain and present desert areas.

This deposited water is critical to the plant's ability to withstand drought and heat, which creates an intimate connection of symbiosis between the evolution of vegetation and the created soil. The creation of sequential optimization in evolutionary prehistory appeared to increase the indigenous plants' ability to deliver the water down to the deeper soil layers and the natural groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Furthermore, thanks to this increased underground water, the plants developed their ability to withstand harsh conditions during prolonged droughts. The natural results follow sharply increased production of healthy soils by the native plants' natural seasonal downfall foliage and the microorganisms' work to produce soil sediment by composting debris.


  • The amounts of large enough rain to create torrential forces are widespread and very common. However, the water's torrential powers are often devastating due to the loss of soils' natural armour in native plants and their roots.


  • This torrential rain is a fundamental weather phenomenon that, in addition to automatic watering of crops, is also the source that fills the natural groundwater reservoirs.

  • However, a devastating danger occurs if original vegetation has been removed and created exposed land surfaces without the necessary reinforcement due to the lack of roots and the overlying network of twigs with undergrowth.

  • This network of plants and roots does not only create enormous strength for the soil layers. The concomitant resistance to erosion is a gigantic creator of spring water to natural groundwater reservoirs in the cliff massif.

  • Interacting with this purifying and protective connection of ancient synergy is very serious because this groundwater phenomenon is of fundamental importance. Here the vegetation and the soil layers accumulating effect is crucial as both a water purifying filter and, furthermore, the only source as the primary distributor to the natural underground water reservoirs (Aquifers).


  • A hostile or aggressive influence or manipulation of this, which is the planet's and the very substance itself in the origin of life, leads not only to malnutrition, starvation, and biological impoverishment. However, it is also the ground for repetitive fatal landslides with ruined buildings and an ever-present catastrophe of crushed dreams and long-standing misery.

  • The creation of the natural soil layers with their unique biological and mechanical properties characterizes each specific environment and its biotope. This special soil character controls the possible pattern for reproduction and survival for each life form within the habitat and directly results from its biotope's unique nature.

  • This hard-wired symbiotic relationship between soil and organisms is evolutionary, a unique biological habitat established in a remote prehistorical time. This is a unique biotope and environment for its plants and wildlife, including all of its indigenous vegetation and species of trees.

  • This interaction is a compassionate biological symbiotic relation of the native plants, and their created soil gives a very delicate and fragile biological and geological synergy. Since this ancient synergy of biology and soil structure, injury to one of these natural components constituents undesirable effects that negatively affect the other forms of life and their accompanying unique soil type.

Wikipedia: Regenerative Agriculture


The Eucalyptus Introduction Created an Environmental Disaster.

(Updated  2017-08-31)

** This tree caused catastrophic erosion and sharply reduced groundwater and surface water in rivers and streams. The ecological catastrophe becomes a tragic and evident fact that can be viewed virtually everywhere on steep slopes around the Capital, where the earth is bare, naked, heavily eroded and very infertile. However, the Eucalyptus tree produces very fast straight, productive timber. It should, therefore, be considered a good tree for forestry on the plains where precipitation cannot create sudden torrents with destructive forces and the resulting erosion with its chaos of water shortage and malnutrition. 

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