The History of the Environment

The History of the Environment

The prosperity of civilization in different cultures and parts of the World indicates an evident connection between an in-depth knowledge of biology and the specific culture's potential for development. Without a doubt, a healthy relationship is seen with this rule, even in other sciences. Still, it is particularly evident in biology, as this is so close to human health and well-being. However, the insidious hierarchical governing terror of the past caused severe scares among many nations, inflicting humiliation in severe starvation and fearful aversions, thus damaging the population's most critical needs for safe stimulus in daily life and duties.

A Beautiful Memory that Attracts Modern Science and Art

With glowing passion and warmth, it is still spoken among the residents of Entoto about when the water level a reasonable time after the rainy season still stood one metre higher in Entoto's canyon streams and its enchanting nature rock baths. It is thus quite close to the time when Entoto's mountain massif and its canyons could carry significantly higher water quantity and, therefore, supply the population in the Capital with fresh water to a much greater extent.

Ethiopia and the River Nile

First, in 1968, science could muster the
adventure of the more significant source
to the Nile and its mighty water flow by
following an arduous journey through
Ethiopia's deep gorges and canyons.

Indeed, it's rare knowledge that Ethiopia's high plateau is the abundant water source that constitutes the cultural cradle and foundation of the last millennium's most mighty Western civilizations. Thus, the fact that Ethiopia is the actual, dominant and natural source of the Nile's water origin is a surprising piece of emotionally ignored information. Even populations in highly advanced countries are often hindered emotionally from including this information about Ethiopia as the cultural cradle of today's modern civilizations. Of course, this flagrant misconception within Western knowledge demands an explanation.

The Prehistoric Legacy of Water and Plants 
Ethiopia's considerable rainwater resources were probably not so contradictory in ancient times since the county's landscape still had the water-saturating properties of its original vegetation. Ethiopia's historical water capacity was mainly due to water-absorbing properties within the Highland's abundant natural soil and vegetation. The same native vegetation was Nature's intricate ancient harbouring high-tech of this water, preventing water flow from obtaining force and speed in torrential losses. Furthermore, the original vegetation also functioned as numerous very efficient receivers of deluges and their torrents, thus absorbing the water masses and avoiding wasting them in the Mediterranean Sea.

Nature's Prehistory with Water and Soils

Ethiopia's Guardian Plants and Their Ground

Prehistorically in Ethiopia, this receiving water system of plants and soils fulfilled in antiquity still retains their natural properties to withhold much water and nourishment within its landscape's mountain massif and deeper soils. These vital water-preserving and harbouring properties of the ancient Ethiopian Highland prepared and guarded Nature for a still unknown dry season in the coming years. Furthermore, Nature's organic protective and shielding mechanism fulfilled Nature's natural character to protect and save this precious water, which explains species' evolution and connection to their environment. Nature's secret high-tech technology from the aeons of antiquity then carefully purified the deluges and stored the seasonal rainfall by typical phenomena of the ancient natural scene and native organisms. These organic evolutionary optimized creations of endemic trees and plants with their network of roots are the highly demanded biological tissue - crucial as powerful shielding mechanisms in the landscape and creating the required protection against erosion.

Ethiopia's Historical Water Landscape

Thus, Ethiopia's indigenous plants' evolution provided its landscape from ancient aeons with Ethiopia's plants' immense, robust, vastly reinforcing and deep root system. Therefore, this native Ethiopian vegetation directed the seasonal deluges into the mountain massif's aquifers and served as gigantic underground and for aeons buffering reservoirs. The physical properties of Ethiopia's Highland landscape and the effects of its organisms' ground symbiosis historically provided Nature with natural and highly effective water reservoirs whose functions were massively physical receivers of the floods. Hence, Ethiopia's Nature and landscape historically supplied water-engulfing properties, thus preventing the country's water masses from rushing down the country's slopes towards Egypt; thereby existed in Ethiopia's history, a very dominant and historically significant era of natural wealth when Ethiopia's landscape could withhold a large proportion of the water within the borders of Ethiopia.

The Eucalyptus Tree's Groundwater Destruction

The Eucalyptus Problem
The Eucalyptus Tree and its Tactical Toxicity

A chemical component with an intricate competition-oriented toxic defence system in the leaves and roots of Eucalyptus trees prevents the growth of other trees and herbs. This chemical component leads to a mono-culture with Eucalyptus as the only tree species and eventually no ground cover. This chemical component causes severe erosion, which is easily observed in the water running through Addis during the rainy seasons.
The Environmental Dangers of the Eucalyptus Tree  
Due to these shortcomings in the water-preserving capacity of the Eucalyptus plantation, it cannot counterbalance the uneven distribution of rain. The result is often torrential flooding in the down-slope areas, in this case, the northern district of Addis Ababa. In August 1994, overwhelming and sudden flooding created a fatal danger.

Ethiopia's and Nature's Heritage:

The Delicate and Precious Origins of Symbiosis

Nature's ancient secretive high-tech heritage is nothing less than the planet Earth's own concealed, gentle, and symbiotic way of making very advanced synergies with the most vital properties between the indigenous vegetation, organisms, and soil mechanics. With its tremendous guardian effect on the landscape's soil layers, this ancient and protective symbiosis between the native plants, microorganisms and soils created powerful water-receiving mechanisms for the ground's hydrology. Therefore, a prehistoric synergy and highly intricate creation of biology and Earth appear with shielding ground properties and thus the ability to naturally absorb and store the deluges for the future within the gigantic aquifers of often ancient water (paleowateNature's to this, the science of prehistory, in antiquity, the foundation of Nature's creation, established the World's crust to gather and protect the soil's most vital water-purifying properties. In early prehistory, this delicate and multifaceted symbiotic process for life thus initiated the foundation to build a reliable and loyal base for the inhabitants of the Earth's Nature.

The Natural Optimized Storage of Purified Water

These advanced but concealed water-preserving mechanisms in the remote past stored this water for the yearly dry seasons and even kept the purified water for countless years within the natural underground aquifers. Nature's prehistoric creation of retaining and purifying water consisted of Nature's own indigenous optimized selection of native plants and soils. These native plants and their unique soils then directed the rainwater by physical blocking properties and guided it into the ground. Due to these intricate synergies of roots' and soils' symbiotic enhancements, the past landscape absorbed the seasonal deluges, reminiscent of a myriad of microscopic and underground seeking natural Naturedelivering tube systems. The indigenous plants and trees have provided Nature with an immense, robust, soil-reinforcing, well-anchored root system. Therefore, this native Ethiopian vegetation directed the seasonal deluges into the mountain's natural underground reservoirs. Thus, in antiquity, torrential floods carefully infiltrated Ethiopia's thick soil layers and the deeper groundwater reservoirs.

Ethiopia's Historical Rainfall & Deluges

The water-retaining properties of native Highland
 vegetation and its trees can be considered, and
 scientifically analyzed using similar methods
 for highly complex dam constructions.
The Torrential Rains and Erosion
This seasonal water flow over the Ethiopian Highlands was then historically and even more prehistorically infiltrating the deluges into soil permeability and vertically delivered this mass of purified water stored in underground aquifers.

Historically, these large quantities of torrential precipitations were absorbed and accumulated for a long time within the borders of Ethiopia, with the result that the total water flows in the country were greatly extended over time and, at the same time, subdued in its sudden and erosive overflows. These floodwaters were thus regularly swallowed by Ethiopia's geology, landscape and vegetation during each rainy period. The abundance of rainwater began to flow further into the Nile only after these were fully saturated.

Ethiopia's Highlands:

The World's Water & Culture Cradle.

The meteorological phenomenon known as orographic precipitation (OP) is shown above the image [1]. This mountainous and high-altitude weather condition is a well-known and evident scientific phenomenon that describes how the incoming clouds transform their moisture into rain (OP) as they rise over a high mountain and its chilly massif. However, this mountain massif does not need to be close to potential civilization to deliver high volumes of water. Still, the source of the precipitation and the beneficial countries may be very distant from one another, such as the Ethiopian Highlands and the Egyptian civilization. The Ethiopian Highlands is a historical example here, which, despite its remoteness, is nevertheless the most significant carrier of the water that arrives in Egypt's civilization through the Nile River.

Ethiopia's Tremendous Mighty Nile River

After the surprisingly long opposite-turned detour of the Blue Nile's long journey towards the south and Ethiopia's Capital, Addis Ababa, the Blue Nile, at last, turns northwards and unites with the White Nile in Sudan and then continues to Egypt. Although the Nile is mighty when it finally arrives in Egypt, it can be seen as very odd how this classic river along its path from the Ethiopian Highland is also subdued by considerable water losses. Due to leaks along its extremely long river path, the River Nile is defeated with many forfeitures of water in soil permeability and evaporation. Furthermore, these countries receiving the water below the Ethiopian Highland are known as warmer lowland areas; nevertheless, this water from Ethiopia finally arrives in Egypt in historical quantities.

Benefits from the Establishment of the Park

Benefits from the Establishment of the Park
A Natural Place for Weekends and Studies
The experience of Ethiopian original and naturally fertile beauty near Addis Ababa, with fashionable facilities and historically cultural Sanctuaries and museums, will attract many people every season. Schoolchildren will actively use the Park for environmental education or to find a peaceful spot to do homework. Restaurants at Entoto Kidane Mehret (1), Entoto Maryam (43), and Entoto Park (Z) amusements attract visitors with pleasure and activities while enjoying the view of Addis at a restaurant on a hot afternoon or weekends with the fresh fragrance in contact with the juniper forest's calmness.

Ethiopia's Nature History

Water Guardian Functions

With the guardian and a profoundly anchored network of roots and stems, a complex picture of evolution's optimization emerges of Ethiopia's original vegetation. In the past, the endemic vegetation in Ethiopia's highlands had a primaeval forest with an intricate network of stems and a deeply anchored network of roots functioning as countless efficient reinforcements of the otherwise tender soil. Hence, an ancient natural legacy reveals its precious presence within Nature's cradle, from when the roots and surrounding earth became intricately dependent on each other, thus accomplishing the beginning of evolution as the actual purifying water gates to the ground and aquifers. Therefore, in ancient times, Ethiopia's considerable rainwater resources were not so contradictory, and the reason was mainly the abundant natural and original vegetation of Ethiopia's highlands.

The Environment and the Loss of Civilizations

Destructive heritage within many of today's clans of
autocrats give the culture a treacherous shift with
 a legacy of an obscure genetic inflow. 
The Dangerous Heritage of Terror
Directed by this despotism in the past, the political rule of terror created a life-threatening situation against the inhabitants of these original wealthy civilizations. In their despair for their families, very few dared, and few survived in their attempt to undertake any necessary technology or work to promote these water masses to benefit the population during heat and drought. Therefore, this law of silent terror effectively and continuously deteriorated the soil layers' natural strength until this country's ground no longer produced abundant crops. Thus, the lack of basic knowledge and empathy within many early despotic autocracies initiated the decline within these rich cultures of the past, ultimately causing irreversible destruction and erosion of land, often in prolonged and extreme poverty.

The Loss Of The Country's Souls and Water

In this dangerously despotic political environment, it was important for the working part of the population to carefully avoid any public signs of individual economic success or personal interest in the development of society. As a result, the historical autocracies' despotism succeeded in their aim for personal profit by reluctance for temporary costs regarding humans and the country, thereby manipulating the inhabitants into deceivingly concealed and dangerously debilitating fatal deadlocks. Due to considering the threat from the psychopathy of the despotic power elite, this susceptible situation was then causing an imminent danger for any person aspiring the will to progress for their country's population's well-being and thereby become the vulnerable target for the power's jealousy in almighty megalomania.

Psychopathy Against the Population

Due to this background of shortcomings in knowledge within international cultures, reoccurring through history follows a deterioration of the environment. This destruction of the environment occurs because an ignorant, nefariously fabricated elite demands supremacy in overwhelming megalomania with the delusion of grandeur. Thus, the leaders of these dictatorships created their businesses in reluctance for the temporary costs regarding the concerns for humans and the country and, maybe most devastating, reproduced their psychopathic genes of terror. They prevailed in lurking threat through corrosive deception of old heritage within the most deep-rooted part of the population's fear. From antiquity, this human factor of fear has been a specific part of the human genome, working within the prehistoric defence trigger DNA mechanisms.

Cataclysms and Covert Deception:

Unveiling the Secrets of the Genome

Ancient DNA provided humankind with the most vital part of the human surviving oriented genome intended as a crucial defence mechanism against dangerous predators or fatal cataclysms. Concluded thereby, this underlying legacy of real threat in the ancient genome activated traumatic experiences among the population, thus inheriting and delivering a modified genome to the future. Hence, the historical autocracies' despotism used a genome of the past to succeed by the most sinister threat of despotic manipulation, delivering a devastating deadlock for the suffering inhabitants. Due to these ominous and fatal threats against the population, the omnipotent despots of the past directed harmful actions against the population's health, followed by misery for the near future civilization. Of course, the ruling power's silent terror of duping despotism becomes the triggering factor to a will of survival among the population, which firmly solidifies a subconscious will for a new social fashion and even activates this to perverted idol worship and a malignant cultural ideal.

The Idea of the connection between human behaviour
and its genetic heritage is a complicated subject and
constitutes a central core of research on the human
species and its civilizations throughout the ages.
Foundation on Scientific Giants 
It seems obvious to reconcile Sigmund Freud's description of the human psyche with Charles Darwin's legendary explanation of the origin of species, albeit harsh for many to treat the human species among others and to analyze humankind on this scientific basis. Undeniably, there is a will in human culture to rise above Nature and instead emphasize humanity's elevated origin. 

DNA and Psychology United
The unification of the behaviour and biology within the human species is thus a complex problem to summarize. Consequently, great attention is crucial here to direct careful observation because the subject is complicated and highly intricate. Therefore, it appears a noble opportunity for the individual to become the source of well-being.

Megalomania & Despotism

These historical autocracies appear with a severely malign culturally locked pattern of imaginary sovereignty with a flagrant and awful record throughout history. For the psychopaths, a firmly laid ground appeared during their lifetime, assuring the profits derived from an outstandingly insidious search for the ardour to live and rule after a prestigious ideal. Against the population's well-being, these autocrats' despotic megalomania all too often acts in profoundly revolting bestiality; with the robust creation of a fatal cultural paradigm in menacing delusion, they developed a terror of covert repugnant ideals. Thus, these autocracies succeeded by terror, setting overwhelmingly abhorrent standards fabricated by frugal greed and envy. Hence, the ground of tragedy was laid and generated for the psychopaths, the genetically influential factors to rule, divide and reinforce their despotic, dictatorial legacy.

Terror & Guardian DNA of the Past.

Of course, this ubiquitous and insidiously fatal terror coerces severe obstacles to the population's essential will for society's positive development and substantial barriers to the people's willingness to deal with the necessary knowledge of the country's natural resources. However, this silent terror is inevitably accompanied by direct fear among the inhabitants, a terror strong enough to activate fearful aversions within the consciousness of the population's most critical phobias of a deeply genetically rooted source. Autonomously, this genetic legacy from prehistory tormented silent people's minds to protect their lives, even if its path was directed to humiliation in severe starvation. Naturally and tragically, this elemental guardian DNA from the past also inhibited the inhabitants' ability to reveal or stimulate their motivation to, for example, collect and safely store these massive amounts of rain and immense seasonal deluges.

๐“๐ก๐ž V๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐›๐ฅ๐ž K๐ง๐จ๐ฐ๐ฅ๐ž๐๐ ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ A๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ

Aquifers, Technology and Evolution

Knowing these natural aquifers and their synergies with water technologies is antiquity's highly valued historical legacy. In their context, they are a well-known concept that helps to understand that a mighty mountain massif that receives abundant and regular precipitation with chilly temperatures also provides the conditions for harbouring this water. Hence, the plants genetically evolved into formidable distributors of the superficial rainwater and allowed this water to penetrate the soil's otherwise porous resistant structure, thereby creating groundwater.  The Forgotten Sciences from Antiquity

๐”๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐ ๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐จ๐ข๐ซ๐ฌ

These historically and very early developed technical and geological-based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water that are often technically complex and aesthetically grandiose. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Still, in the legacy of history, they are the basis of ancient civilizations' most essential and original technological achievements.

Civilizations and Mountainous Rainfall

The precipitation that falls on high-lying mountain masses is usually of utmost importance for the opportunities to develop a stable and prosperous civilization for the societies below. This cultural dependency is a distinct and regular phenomenon recurring throughout history and today's cultures. The erosive forces can be devastating and contradictory, and this is because rainfall should usually be welcome. Nevertheless, significant problems are generally a lack of higher civilization, political turmoil, or a despotic and ignorant society under harsh control by a tragically corrupted heritage.

The Fragile Restoration Of the Lost Nature

 Science, much time and labour are needed for environmental restoration; this demands massive protection projects to offer the young plants the replacement for the lost biotope and its vital natural protective properties. Hence, restoring a lost biotope is complicated and requires much work to recreate a reliable substitute for the missing shielding armour of the primaeval forest. Therefore, due to the absence of the essential protective functions of mother trees and other plants, enormous efforts are required to recreate these guardian functions for the tender indigenous seedlings, which otherwise do not survive the very exposed ground.

๐‘Š๐‘Ž๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ ๐ถ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘ค๐‘–๐‘กโ„Ž ๐บ๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ต๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘ข๐‘ก๐‘ฆ

Within the historical records appear several practical and aesthetical possibilities for restoration. These options for aesthetical restorations include water management, ground stability, and the most attractively pleasurable recreation paths. Another way of describing these methods for natural conservation is the effectiveness of the irrigation method when combined with very gentle and beautiful hiking trails above dizzying precipices. Through these micro canals' associated need for strength and reliability, this need for reinforced waterways coincides with the suitability of dramatically beautiful and safe hiking trails where the steep slopes above or beneath these paths deliver an extraordinary beauty over grand views of often impossible precipitous. ๐Ÿ“ธ: From Wikimedia Commons, Fasilides Bath, Gondar, Ethiopia.


The Slopes' Environmental Restoration

Sudden influxes of water in the mountains can lead to instability and damage to the vacuum-anchoring suction effect, which is a result of gravity pressure built up over time in the layers of the hillside. Furthermore, a previous reduction of trees removes the reinforcement from roots, causing the slopes to become even more saturated and fragile due to the loss of strength from the tree roots and increased lubrication from the water masses. Furthermore, the stability of the native vegetation and trees' roots also prevents the water forces from speeding up and forming devastating torrential powers where water masses tear up the ground of buildings and simply drill deeply into the riverbanks of the settlements.

Water and Land Restoration


Environmental Restoration

Humankind's High-Tech in Synergy with

Creation of Nature's Foundation

What seems too complicated to describe in standard terms can sometimes be given a simple parable opportunity. In short, a few stones do not hinder a flowing torrent but very well by a firmly anchored uniform stone construction. Consequently, the few randomly placed rocks are lost in futile hardships, crunching the labourer by sweat and thirst in toil's despair and poverty. In contrast, the opposite is usually the case with the anchored unit and its amounts of valuable dammed water at hand to use when the drought occurs. Of course, the natural forest consists of many complex biological phenomena with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship with a highly ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the environment. Therefore, the water-retaining properties of the mountain massifs' Highland in synergy with endemic vegetation and its trees can be considered and scientifically analyzed with considerable help from the methods used for highly complex dam constructions.

The Ethiopian Heritage Trust

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Bole Road, Ras Mengesha Siyum House
Phone: - +251-11 515 8802

In 1992, the Ethiopian Heritage Trust (EHT or the Trust) started as an Ethiopian voluntary organization and is non-political, non-religious, and non-profiting in its constitution. Founded by private individuals wishing to make a personal contribution towards stopping the decay and the destruction of the country's historical buildings and natural environment, the organization has, from the beginning, been supported by the Administration of Region 14. Membership is open to all after paying an annual or lifetime fee.

The organization, Ethiopian Heritage Trust, is devoted to restoring Ethiopia's indigenous Nature and sincerely preserving the country's precious cultural heritage. With high priority, the Ethiopian Heritage Trust laid the ground for understanding the importance of an indigenous forest's effect on the country's natural health. The organization's work with planting native saplings illuminates the landscape's healing capacity with precision thanks to this native forest. The toxic eucalyptus tree imprints the importance of careful research regarding knowledge in natural science. Such a history of incompatible species gives an intense and evident example as a warning before introducing foreign species into unique and vulnerable habitats.

Entoto Natural Park's Profound Commitment 

Obligations for the Population and the Environment

Depending on the country's development and the crucial environmental future for the population's health, children's school year, research and development of medicine for future generations and education in natural sciences, it's of tremendous importance to preserve and subsequently protect the project and building Entoto Natural Park (Nursery) 34. Furthermore, it intends to develop this project of sensitive connection between humans and the environment's health to include additional areas with the restoration of Nature in the fresh, fragrant Highland that extensively propagates over Ethiopia's High plateau.

The Park's Working Souls

Many devotedly working souls have spent years in this magnificent and often inaccessible area where great respect should follow; therefore, this immense work to restore human health and dignity as representatives of formidable environmental conservation. This is the work area of many endeavours: Entoto's High Plateau, where it appears among adorable Juniper hills and dreamlike meadows. Ultimately, beyond the horizon of golden fields, this landscape of forgotten dreams reveals its southern border in the abyss of Bees' Cliff (14). It shows very soon the beautiful path (42) to Entoto Natural Park (Nursery) 34, where massive work has elapsed with nature restoration for many years.


Inside Ethiopia, Tours invites you to be part of an unforgettable experience in Entoto Natural Park. We will meet in our office, located in Kazanchis (just in front of the UNECA back entrance), and our guide will accompany you in the local taxis up to the mountain. This is an excellent opportunity for you to experience Ethiopian commuting. 

Once we arrive on Entoto Mountain, where the capital city was first founded in 1886, you will undoubtedly feel like having mentholated topical ointment. Yes, we are not big fans of the Eucalyptus tree either! That is why we want to promote indigenous seedling planting in Ethiopia by contributing to the Ethiopian Green Legacy.

Where do you plan to make your mark?

The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association is working to plant more than 50,000 indigenous saplings in Entoto Natural Park and Zego Kebele Association in Ankober District to cover exposed areas.
  Organizations: Associations: Educational institutions: All those who love Nature, together with our association, let's build a country with suitable air by planting saplings. Let's plant indigenous saplings together.

As we believe, we are ready and waiting for you this year. The Ethiopian Heritage Trustee Association has planted native saplings in place of Eucalyptus trees with partner organizations and members in the Entoto Natural Park. He tells you that this year, come and plant saplings together to protect the environment. For more information:

๐Ÿ“ž Call +251 Ethiopia  

011-5-15-88-02/ 09-22-97-27-46

Ethiopian Heritage Trust - Plantation of Seedlings




Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia:

Identification, Propagation and

 Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones

Azene Bekele-Tesemma

Edited by
Bo Tengnรคs, Ensermu Kelbesa, Sebsibe Demissew and Patrick Maundu

The contents of this handbook may be reproduced without special permission. However, acknowledgement of the source is requested. The photographers and artists concerned must be contacted for reproduction of illustrations. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of World Agroforestry Centre.


The Trust works principally through support for the Ethiopian Heritage Trust in Ethiopia to restore and conserve lands of natural beauty and historic buildings ...


The total amount you donate will be used in Ethiopia.
The Trust is registered with Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs for Gift Aid.


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