Water to the Capital


Water to the Capital

๐๐ข๐œ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐š๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฒ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐  ๐Ÿ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐ฒ

An excellent and cosy invitation to gain an initial practical view of these water harbouring technologies and comfortable little walk is obtained just to the right of the bridge (22), shown within the map square [A] at Entoto Kidane Mehret (1). This place also offers an ideal little excursion for the young family on picnics or in seek for sporty games where an open grass pitch here is providing a breathtaking place just beneath the start of the mountain and an embracing enclosure of a sculptural curved river. The picture above, however, does not show the Italian (19) construction at the site which is nevertheless hidden here underground but at the same time alluring for exploration.

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐‚๐š๐ฎ๐ญ๐ขous ๐‚๐ก๐จ๐ข๐œ๐ž ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ the Young ๐…๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅy

19. The ๐ˆ๐ญ๐š๐ฅ๐ข๐š๐ง ๐–๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ซ ๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐จ๐ข๐ซ
During the occupation, the Italians established a big reservoir to provide the Capital with water. Nowadays, this mountain reservoir (underground water technology) has lost some of its importance in favour of bigger catchment dams. During the regular rain season, it,s therefore appropriate to enjoy the pleasant and sunny day hours by enjoying the beautifully undulated promenade within a delightful valley and its enchantingly sculptural glen. To reach the site of the Italian built spring water facility (19) is within these requirements and therefore an excellent choice for just the most of activities and nature interest. Entoto Kidane Mehret's inhabitants are bringing their household water from this source. Thus, the company is apparent by playing children and people who are fetching quantities of water to their homes.


Picnic care for the family (19)
19.The Path to the Italian Water Reservoir.
The most beautiful and versatile nature and fascinating places which also are reachable within charming simplicity are often the very primary for family picnics. Still, they can often be challenging to accomplish within the convenience of the whole family's interest. Due to weather conditions, duties and family members' interest of comfort and alluring entertainment, will this require some very unique and beautiful characters of the picnic's requirements.

19. A suitable choice during the rainy season.
While this site (19) offers this required, convenient and exciting beauty and the fact that the tempests usually follow a bound rhythm, its experience in beautiful, cosy daily hours can be both an appealing and irresistible occurrence. This provided a conscious behaviour to return the short distance to Entoto Kidane Mehret (1) in time before the next thunderstorm.


A. The Character of Entoto Kidane Mehret's valley.
The most necessary for picnics as well as a candy shop is across the bus stop right next to the Entoto Kidane Mehret community (1). The square [A] includes the path to point (19) and serves as a directed and facilitating figure to more easily find points (5)(22), and (37) which are located at the valley at Entoto Kidane Mehret (32).  This area [A] is the beginning for most of the following hiking trails described.

B. The Invitation to the crossroad of wilderness.
The still gently upward hike shown within the circle (B) includes the points (35)(38)(39), and constitutes both a crossroads of somewhat wild paths but also a beautiful rise in a ledge of some metres threshold. These points are located to the right of the circle (B) but include also point (38) just at the riverside. Anyway, regardless of the choice of the hiking paths within the loop point (B), all of these will soon contact the continued walk towards higher grounds.


Entoto Kidane Mehret and its Valley [A]

Apparent and Pleasant Hiking Trails

Entoto Kidane Mehret's valley [A] forms the first gates to the mountain's southern slope. The historical mountain Entoto invites here to the beginning of the first careful mountainside's rising shoulder. From this valley [A] with its bridge crossing (22) presents the crossroads of paths. With this, the first careful invitation to a wilderness flavour is given but with a mysterious feeling of an unknown grandeur, still only waiting in concealed silence. This of nothing less than hidden places with an untouched mountain nature and its overwhelming grandiose impressions.


The Mountain and its Historical Water
Entoto Natural Park and its Historical Water.
This topographical configuration of Entoto Natural Park's mountain crest has the curious result that two raindrops that simultaneously moist the soil of Entoto's mountain crest, only a centimetre apart from each other, will have quite different destinies.


The Mountain is a Water Divider to the Nile.
One waterway will, after a long journey through the River Nile reach the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, the other watershed will pass through the city of Addis Ababa, eventually evaporating in the Danakil Desert, as the Awash River never reaches the sea.




๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ก๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐„๐ง๐ญ๐จ๐ญ๐จ ๐Š๐ข๐๐š๐ง๐ž ๐Œ๐ž๐ก๐ซ๐ž๐ญ.

Here is the valley [A] with full experiences above its cosy shaped gully and river in stunning formations and complete contact. With this dramatically graceful and sculptural valley just below Entoto Kidane Mehret (1), this place constitutes a crossroad for many very completely enchanting choices. Within this valley [A] and its inviting gully (22) of paths ways and bridge crossing, this enticingly cosy and inspiring dell attracts for waiting in pleasure. In a spiritual sense is a tickling will to remain in harmony and fully engulf its full beauty of sculptural shape and its feeling of just waiting for premonition adventures.

Entoto Kidane Mehret's ๐›๐ซ๐ข๐๐ ๐ž ๐œ๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ฒ.

The valley crossing of Entoto Kidane Mehret (1) constitutes by a bridge (22) just some steps downhill of the sanctuary (32) and further invites a gentle walk to the place for family picnic and games at the Italian reservoir (19), located just to the right by a gentle undulated and charmingly curved path. The bridge crossing here (22) is also the natural path for those who want a more dramatic hike towards the high plateau by first passing point (37) just a few steps upward on the left side.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ. ๐•๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฒ ๐๐จ๐ญ๐ญ๐จ๐ฆ near Entoto Kidane Mehret Church, beautiful scenery with a brook passing by. This brook (35) is in many ways characterizing the views to the dramatic landscape and cliff formations of the uphill trails. It is an excellent assistant for orientation for the most hiking paths up to the high plateau.


๐“๐ก๐ž V๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐›๐ฅ๐ž K๐ง๐จ๐ฐ๐ฅ๐ž๐๐ ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ A๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ


๐€๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ž๐œ๐ก๐ง๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ ๐ฒ 

The knowledge of these natural aquifers and their synergies with water technologies is a highly valued historical legacy of antiquity. In their context, they are a well-known concept that helps to visualize an understanding that a mighty mountain massif that receives abundant and regular precipitation with chilly temperatures also provides the given conditions for harbouring this water.


๐”๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐ ๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐จ๐ข๐ซ๐ฌ
These historically and very early developed technical and geological based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water which are often very technically complex and also aesthetically grandiose. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Still, in the legacy of history, they are the basis of the most essential and original of technological achievements for ancient civilizations.




  ๐“he ๐“๐จ๐ซ๐ซ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐๐ซ๐ž๐œ๐ข๐ฉ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง

These torrential rainwater quantities furthermore entail difficulties with powerful downpours during rainy periods as well as the following imminent risks of erosion in the vicinity of settlements. These annual recurring floods often create severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis Ababa in connection with the rainy seasons. These torrential floods produce directly life-threatening situations, which besides are greatly strengthened by the fact that the rock massif is regularly deprived of the vegetation and therefore not able to slow down the water masses speeding up downwards the slopes of the rock.



 The layer of fertile soil gets thinner 
The Torrential Rains and Erosion
๐“๐ก๐ž ๐…๐จ๐ซ๐œ๐ž๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐„๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง
*Erosion: Because there is no ground cover of native plants in the planted eucalyptus forest, the only thing to hold the soil is the deeper web of roots of these Australian trees. The soil-holding capacity of eucalyptus is therefore very moderate compared with the trees initially covering the slopes of Entoto. This lack of undergrowth and native trees causes severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis in connection with the rainy seasons.

๐ƒ๐ž๐ฏ๐š๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐ช๐ฎ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฌ.
With tremendous power, these accumulated water masses rushing out along the rock sides and carving with gigantic forces into the bare earth crust where the earlier-millennium-accumulated soil layers had this abundant undergrowth protection, including vigorous multi-branched roots from originally forested slopes.


*Flooding: During a long time on Entoto, every leaf and every branch have fallen to the ground is collected by people, whereas in a natural forest a process of decomposing organic material from leaves, wood, roots etc. is left naturally on the soil, well supported by native undergrowth. The organic matter thus gets its time to improve the soil structure, leading to a higher infiltration rate and a much better water-storage capacity.

๐•๐ž๐ ๐ž๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐ฌ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ญ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ž ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž

Heavy rain that would otherwise be appreciated as a significant asset around the world instead becomes a too frequent and recurring problem. This otherwise welcome abundant rainfall has historically often instead periodically caused burdensome environment and health problem and this in many places around the populated part of the world. These rain forces are now all too often combined with massive illegal or obscure logging of mountain slopes together with excessive over-use of pasture from farms.

Fundamental Reinforcement

This tangled network of indigenous vegetation, with its reinforcements of both shallow, create an optimized strength, delivered from the past aeons of evolution. These network of plants and their deep, widespread roots of native trees, not only creates tremendous stability for soil layers - and with it, the consequent resistance to erosion - but also constitutes a giant creator and spring water for natural groundwater reservoirs in the rock massif.

Natur's Lost Armour 

This overuse of the natural forest provides a historical and internationally cultural habit that follows a historical pattern. Due to the historical lack of resources, the population began harvesting the timber of natural vegetation, including its overwhelming importance as soil reinforcement. Unconditionally this past harvest of native forest leads to an expose and lay bare the soft soil layers and thereby allow the water forces to speed up and form devastating torrential powers. With efficiency, these mighty water masses now tear up the slopes in deep furrows and with simplicity drills many meters into the river's river inflows.

Natural and Clean Water

To interfere with this purifying and protective vegetation, soil layers and its combined connection of ancient synergy is thus a human habit around the world. The consequence is grave because this groundwater phenomenon is of fundamental importance where the vegetation and the soil layers accumulating effect is crucial as both a water purifying filter and, furthermore, the only source as the primary distributor to the natural underground water reservoirs.

๐–๐š๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‹๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐†๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐๐ฐ๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ซ

It is precisely these soil layers with undergrowth that historically would block the water's possibility to speed downhill and thus, harmonically gathering the flow into slow motion and mountain absorbing units. Finally to complete its purpose as natural soil layers by filtering and absorb these water masses and pass it on to deep-lying mountain chambers. These are the naturally geological water reservoirs with their underground rock branches and natural aquifers of the mountain massif.

๐€๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐๐ž๐ฆ๐š๐ง๐๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ

The erosion's consequence and the following demands of efforts is an evident and daily matter where these natural reservoirs (aquifers) in the interior of the mountain massif do not receive the amounts of water as previously and that the remaining water amount in the aquifers becomes devastatingly reduced.

๐€ ๐‹๐ž๐ ๐š๐œ๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ˆ๐ ๐ง๐จ๐ซ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž

Furthermore, the dramatically reduced water that finally drips into these hidden rock chamber (aquifers) is without the previous purifying and filtering effect from healthy and undisturbed soil and its vegetation, leading to groundwater of far lower quantity and quality.

Protection & Repair

However, a lot of work has been done to re-form an upper soil layer with a protective undergrowth. It would, therefore, be a very significant surprise with information about higher groundwater and a new generation of these protective indigenous trees, which, however, still grows in a magical graceful and appealing landscape.

The healing capacity of native forest

The natural health and fertile beauty in this indigenous Juniper forest (40) illuminates with precision the healing ability of a native forest but also the severe nature and habitat destruction that occurred at the introduction of the Eucalyptus tree.
The importance of careful research regarding knowledge in natural science is here given an excellent and evident example before any foreign species is regarded as possible for an introduction into an unfamiliar and very possibly vulnerable habitat.

A beautiful memory that attracts modern science and art

In the fathers' near mind, It is still spoken with glowing passion and warmth feeling, among the residents of Entoto about the time when the water level a reasonable time after the rainy season still stood one metre higher in Entoto's lower streams and its enchanting nature rock baths. It is thus quite close to the time when Entoto's mountain massif and its canyons could carry significantly higher water quantity and therefore supply the population in the Capital with fresh water to a much greater extent.

40. The Wild and Fertile Forest from the Ancient Era

This original forest is captivatingly wild and consists of these more than 50 years old indigenous Juniperus procera trees. This native forest provides a unique contact to original nature with somewhat muscular exotic, primaeval lushness and a great surprise, beyond what a visitor would usually expect in such proximity to the Capital. This native Juniper woodland (40) is massive in its appearance and stunning in vitality, with a perfect, lush and dense undergrowth.

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