Water to the Capital


Water to the Capital

๐๐ข๐œ๐ง๐ข๐œ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฉ๐ฅ๐š๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฒ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐  ๐Ÿ๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅ๐ฒ

An excellent and cosy invitation to gain an initial practical view of these water harbouring technologies and a comfortable little walk is obtained just to the right of the bridge (22), shown within the map square [A] at Entoto Kidane Mehret (1). This place also offers an ideal little excursion for the young family on picnics or seek sporty games. An open grass pitch here provides a breathtaking place just beneath the start of the mountain and an embracing enclosure of a sculptural curved river. However, the picture above does not show the Italian (19) construction at the site, which is nevertheless hidden here underground but at the same time alluring for exploration.

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐‚๐š๐ฎ๐ญ๐ขous ๐‚๐ก๐จ๐ข๐œ๐ž ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ the Young ๐…๐š๐ฆ๐ข๐ฅy

19. The ๐ˆ๐ญ๐š๐ฅ๐ข๐š๐ง ๐–๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ซ ๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐จ๐ข๐ซ
The Italians established an extensive reservoir to provide the Capital with water during the occupation. Nowadays, this mountain reservoir (underground water technology) has lost some of its importance in favour of more significant catchment dams. Therefore, during the regular rain season, it s appropriate to enjoy the pleasant and sunny day hours by enjoying the beautifully undulated promenade within a delightful valley and its enchantingly sculptural glen. The gentle path that reaches the Italian built spring water facility (19) is within these requirements and, therefore, an excellent choice for most activities and nature interests. Entoto Kidane Mehret's inhabitants bring their household water from this source. Thus, the company is apparent by playing children and people fetching quantities of water to their homes.


Picnic care for the family (19)
19. The Path to the Italian Water Reservoir.
The most beautiful and versatile nature and fascinating places within charming simplicity are often the primary for family picnics. Still, they can often be challenging to accomplish within the convenience of the whole family's interest. Due to weather conditions, duties and family members' interest in comfort and alluring entertainment, will this require some unique and beautiful characters of the picnic's requirements.

19. A suitable choice during the rainy season.
While this site (19) offers this required, convenient and exciting beauty and the fact that the tempests usually follow a bound rhythm, its experience in beautiful, cosy daily hours can be both an appealing and irresistible occurrence. This provided a conscious behaviour to return the short distance to Entoto Kidane Mehret (1) in time before the next thunderstorm.


Entoto Kidane Mehret and its Valley [A]

Apparent and Pleasant Hiking Trails

Entoto Kidane Mehret's valley [A] forms the first gates to the mountain's southern slope. The historical mountain Entoto invites the beginning of the first careful mountainside's rising shoulder. This valley [A] with its bridge crossing (22), presents the crossroads of paths. With this, the first gentle invitation to a wilderness flavour is given with a mysterious feeling of an unknown grandeur, still only waiting in concealed silence. This is nothing less than hidden places with a still prevailing brilliance of original mountain nature in overwhelming grandiose impressions.


A. The Character of Entoto Kidane Mehret's valley.
The most necessary for picnics and a candy shop is across the bus stop next to the Entoto Kidane Mehret community (1). The valleys outer borders are simplified in the map by this square [A], including the path to point (19), and serves as a directed and facilitating figure to more easily find points (5)(22), and (37). This beautiful river-dell is located within the valley [A] of Entoto Kidane Mehret (32) and constitute the beginning of most of the following hiking trails described.

B. The Invitation to the crossroad of wilderness.
The still gently upward hike shown within the circle (B) includes the points (35)(38)(39) and constitutes both a crossroads of somewhat wild paths and a beautiful rise in a ledge of some metres threshold. These points are located to the circle's right (B) and include the underground Italian fortification (38) just at the riverside. Anyway, regardless of the choice of the hiking paths within the loop point (B), all of these will soon contact the continued walk towards higher grounds.


Ethiopia's Historic Waterways


The Mountain and its Historical Water
Entoto Natural Park and its Historical Water.
This topographical configuration of Entoto Natural Park's mountain crest has the curious result that two raindrops that simultaneously moist the soil of Entoto's mountain crest, only a centimetre apart from each other, will have quite different destinies. After a long journey through the River Nile, one waterway will reach the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, the other watershed will pass through the city of Addis Ababa, eventually evaporating in the Danakil Desert, as the Awash River never reaches the sea.

The Ethiopian highland is the Legendary Water Provider.
However, this primary Ethiopian source of the Nile River is only one of several Ethiopian rivers that contribute to the total water in the Nile. The consequence is that the total amount of water delivered from the Ethiopian highland to the Nile is clearly beyond only the Blue Nile.


๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ก๐š๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐„๐ง๐ญ๐จ๐ญ๐จ ๐Š๐ข๐๐š๐ง๐ž ๐Œ๐ž๐ก๐ซ๐ž๐ญ.

With this dramatically graceful and sculptural valley just below Entoto Kidane Mehret (1), this valley [A] constitutes a crossroad for many very completely enchanting choices where the valley [A] provides full experiences above its cosy gully and river in stunning formations and complete contact. Within this valley [A] and its inviting ravine (22) of paths-ways and bridge crossing, this enticingly comfortable and inspiring dell attracts for waiting in pleasure. In a spiritual sense is a tickling will to remain in harmony and fully engulf its full beauty of sculptural shape and its feeling of just waiting for premonition adventures.

Entoto Kidane Mehret's ๐›๐ซ๐ข๐๐ ๐ž ๐œ๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ฒ.

The valley crossing of Entoto Kidane Mehret (1) constitutes by a bridge (22) - [A] just some steps downhill of the sanctuary (32) and further invites a gentle walk to the place for family picnic and games at the Italian reservoir (19), located just to the right by a gentle undulated and charmingly curved path. The bridge crossing here (22) - [A] is also the natural path for those who want a more dramatic hike towards the high plateau by the first passing point (37), just a few steps upward on the left side.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ. ๐•๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ž๐ฒ ๐๐จ๐ญ๐ญ๐จ๐ฆ with its traditional bridge is located within the valley [A] near Entoto Kidane Mehret Church (32) and presents beautiful scenery with a brook passing by. This brook within the valley [A] is in many ways characterizing the views of the dramatic landscape and cliff formations of the uphill trails. It is an excellent assistant for orientation for most hiking paths up to the high plateau.


๐“๐ก๐ž V๐š๐ฅ๐ฎ๐š๐›๐ฅ๐ž K๐ง๐จ๐ฐ๐ฅ๐ž๐๐ ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ A๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ


๐€๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ž๐œ๐ก๐ง๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ ๐ฒ 

Knowing these natural aquifers and their synergies with water technologies is antiquity's highly valued historical legacy. In their context, they are a well-known concept that helps to understand that a mighty mountain massif that receives abundant and regular precipitation with chilly temperatures also provides the conditions for harbouring this water.  The Forgotten Sciences from Antiquity


๐”๐ง๐๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐ ๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐ซ๐ฏ๐จ๐ข๐ซ๐ฌ
These historically and very early developed technical and geological-based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water that are often technically complex and aesthetically grandiose. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Still, in the legacy of history, they are the basis of ancient civilizations' most important and original technological achievements.





  ๐“he ๐“๐จ๐ซ๐ซ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐๐ซ๐ž๐œ๐ข๐ฉ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง

These annual recurring floods often create severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis Ababa in connection with the rainy seasons. These torrential floods produce directly life-threatening situations, which are greatly strengthened by the fact that the rock massif is regularly deprived of the vegetation and therefore not able to slow down the water masses speeding up downwards the slopes of the rock. Furthermore, these torrential rainwater quantities entail difficulties with powerful downpours during rainy periods and the following imminent risks of erosion in the vicinity of settlements.



The Fundamental Creation Of Drinking Water:
The Torrential Rains and Erosion
๐“๐ก๐ž ๐…๐จ๐ซ๐œ๐ž๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐„๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง
*Erosion: Because there is no ground cover of native plants in the planted eucalyptus forest, the only thing to hold the soil is the deeper web of roots of these Australian trees. The soil-holding capacity of eucalyptus is therefore very moderate compared with the trees initially covering the slopes of Entoto. This lack of undergrowth and native trees causes severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis in connection with the rainy seasons.

๐ƒ๐ž๐ฏ๐š๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐‚๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ž๐ช๐ฎ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ฌ.
These accumulated water masses rushed out along the rock sides with tremendous power and carved massive forces into the bare earth crust. This while earlier-millennium-accumulated soil layers had this abundant undergrowth protection, including strong multi-branched roots from originally forested slopes.


*Flooding: During a long time on Entoto, every leaf and every branch that has fallen to the ground is collected by people, whereas in a natural forest, a process of decomposing organic material from leaves, wood, roots etc. is left naturally on the soil, well supported by native undergrowth. The organic matter thus gets its time to improve the soil structure, leading to a higher infiltration rate and a much better water storage capacity.

๐•๐ž๐ ๐ž๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐ฌ ๐๐ซ๐จ๐ญ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ž ๐ˆ๐ฆ๐ฉ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž

Heavy rain that would otherwise be appreciated as a significant asset worldwide instead becomes a frequent and recurring problem. This otherwise welcome abundant rainfall has historically often instead periodically caused burdensome environment and health problems in many places around the populated part of the world. These rain forces are now all too often combined with massive illegal or obscure logging of mountain slopes together with excessive over-use of pasture from farms.

Fundamental Reinforcement.
This tangled network of indigenous vegetation, with its reinforcements of both shallow, create an optimized strength delivered from the past aeons of evolution. This network of plants and their deep, widespread roots of native trees creates tremendous stability for soil layers - and with it, the consequent resistance to erosion - and constitutes a giant creator and spring water for natural groundwater reservoirs in the rock massif.


Natur's Lost Original Armour

Required Root-web of Indigenous Trees 

The Environment, Culture and Prosperity
Fundamental Reinforcement: Endemic Trees & Plants.
With its reinforcements of shallow and deep roots, this tangled network of indigenous vegetation creates an optimized evolutionarily optimized strength delivered from the past aeons. This network of plants and their deep, widespread roots of native trees creates tremendous stability for soil layers - and with it, the consequent resistance to erosion - and constitutes a giant creator and spring water for natural groundwater reservoirs in the rock massif.

Natural Sciences Provide the Tools to Repair the Original Nature.
This overuse of the natural forest provides a historical and international cultural habit that follows a historical pattern. Due to the historical lack of resources, the population began harvesting the timber of natural vegetation, including its overwhelming importance as soil reinforcement by native roots with the soil and organism in symbiosis. 


Natural and Clean Water with Native Nature

The consequence of ignoring natural sciences within nature is grave because this groundwater phenomenon is of fundamental importance for any population's possible to create their future health or prosperity. The vegetation and the soil layers accumulating effect are crucial as both a water purifying filter and, furthermore, the only source as the primary distributor to the natural underground water reservoirs. To interfere with this purifying and protective vegetation, soil layers, and its combined connection of ancient synergy is thus a human habit around the world.

๐–๐š๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐‹๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐†๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐๐ฐ๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ซ

Historically, these soil layers with undergrowth would block the water's possibility to speed downhill and, thus, harmonically gather the flow into slow motion and mountain absorbing units. Unconditionally, this past harvest of native forest exposes and lays bare the soft soil layers, allowing the water forces to speed up and form devastating torrential powers. With efficiency, these mighty water masses now tear up the slopes in deep furrows and, with simplicity, drill many meters into the river's river inflows. Finally, to complete its purpose as natural soil layers by filtering and absorbing these water masses and passing them on to deep-lying mountain chambers. These are the naturally geological water reservoirs with their underground rock branches and natural aquifers of the mountain massif.


Grandiose Constructions of the Roman Empire
The Lost Secrets of Antiquity

The Environment and Human's Future
with the Lost Knowledge from Antiquity

Although this Italian ruin was built in today's decaying concrete, the renovation of this mountain fortress (38) within the map loop (B) can stimulate an excellent foundation for a historical discovery of the lost recipe for Roman concrete. Although this historical concrete's millennia-old secrets still prevail as a crucial investigation of international laboratories, its deepest secrets still persist. This potential rediscovery of ancient concrete with this lost high technology and historical treasure from antiquity would then offer a scientific study of the Roman technology within an educational project. 


๐€ ๐‹๐ž๐ ๐š๐œ๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ˆ๐ ๐ง๐จ๐ซ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž

๐€๐ช๐ฎ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐๐ž๐ฆ๐š๐ง๐๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ

The erosion's consequence and the following demands of efforts is an evident daily matter regarding these natural reservoirs (aquifers) in the interior of the mountain massif. Due to this history of uncontrolled erosion, the mountain massif does not retain the abundant amounts of water as previously; thus, the remaining water delivered to the aquifers becomes devastatingly reduced. Furthermore, the dramatically reduced water that finally drips into these hidden rock chambers (aquifers) is without the previous purifying and filtering effect from healthy and undisturbed soil and vegetation, leading to groundwater of far lower quantity and quality.

Protection & Repair

However, much work has been done to re-form an upper soil layer with a protective undergrowth. It would, therefore, be a very significant surprise with information about higher groundwater and a new generation of these protective indigenous trees, which, however, still grow in a magical graceful and appealing landscape.

The healing capacity of native forest

The natural health and fertile beauty in this indigenous Juniper forest (40) illuminates with precision the healing ability of a native forest and the severe nature and habitat destruction that occurred at the introduction of the Eucalyptus tree. The importance of careful research regarding knowledge in natural science is here given an excellent and evident example before any foreign species is regarded as possible for an introduction into an unfamiliar and very possibly vulnerable habitat.

A beautiful memory that attracts modern science and art

In the fathers' near memories, it's still spoken with glowing passion and warmth among the residents of Entoto's mighty waterways. This bright memory is about when the water level was reasonable after the rainy season, still stood one metre higher in Entoto's streams and its enchanting nature rock baths. It is thus quite close to the time when Entoto's mountain massif and its canyons could carry significantly higher water quantity and therefore supply the population in the Capital with fresh water to a much greater extent.

40. The Wild and Fertile Forest from the Ancient Era

This original forest is captivatingly wild and consists of these more than 50 years old indigenous Juniperus procera trees. This native forest provides a unique contact to original nature with somewhat muscular exotic, primaeval lushness and a great surprise beyond what a visitor would usually expect in proximity to the Capital. This native Juniper woodland (40) is massive in its appearance and stunning in vitality, with a perfect, lush and dense undergrowth.


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