Benefits from the Establishment of the Park


Benefits from the Establishment of the Park

A Wonderful Memory from Ethiopia

 Attracts Modern Science and Art

With Entoto's sculptural brooks and natural cliff pools, this historic mountain remains in precious memories as a heritage of sincere affection and natural wealth. Thus, it's a venerated time when the mountain massif and its canyons could carry significantly higher quantity and quality of water. Therefore, with glowing passion and warmth among the residents of Entoto, the joy of memories still lingers when the water level, a reasonable time after the rainy season, still stood one metre higher in the brooks and natural cliff pools of the high plateau. With the profound history of Entoto's rock-sheltered streams and enchanting nature rock baths, this beautiful memory is still very vivid today among the inhabitants of this legendary mountain.

 

Ethiopia's Grande Nature History 

With Water Harbouring Functions

Background:  Due to these damaging effects of the foreign implanted tree and its shortcomings, the water-preserving capacity of this Eucalyptus plantation cannot counterbalance the regular seasonal, uneven distribution of rain. The result is regrettably a massive water loss in uncontrollable torrential flooding, inundating the down-slope areas, in this case, the northern district of Addis Ababa. In August 1994, it created a fatal danger because of overwhelming and sudden flooding. Hence, the importance of the guardian and a profoundly anchored network of roots and stems emerges, which reveals its crucial role in a complex picture of downloading the water in the mountain massif. This harbouring of water masses is Nature's original heritage purpose, not only for the plant's survival but also for wildlife and humankind's survival. In the past, the endemic vegetation in Ethiopia's highlands had a primaeval forest with an intricate network of stems and a deeply anchored network of roots functioning as countless efficient reinforcements of the otherwise exposed and fragile soil. Here, a natural legacy reveals its precious and ancient presence from a far remote time before the rise of any known animal species, now only proving its presence as petrified strata in deep geological sedimentary rocks.  


The Importance of Indigenous Trees

The Environment,
Culture and Prosperity

Wealth and Water Efficiency Of the History
The native Ethiopian vegetation served as a highly effective physical barrier, blocking the country's water masses from rushing down its slopes toward Egypt. Due to Nature's natural ground pipes of soils and roots configuration, this intricate network of vegetation, and the native undergrowth, the seasonal deluges had sophisticated water receivers in Ethiopia's thick soil layers.

The Natural Reservoirs of the Landscape
Therefore, after the downpours, with their root reinforcement, the deep soil layers and ground moraine delivered purified water into the natural storage as groundwater of the terrain's deep aquifers. Hence, this original vegetation functioned as countless efficient water collectors with an intricate network of stems and a deeply anchored network of roots, further stabilizing the landscape and giving tremendous strength against erosion and deterioration.


 
Nature's Precious Cradle of Noble Life

Within this hidden enigma from the beginning of life lies the precious synergy between the ground and plants in their ability to build tremendous strength within the ground's structure. This ground built by Nature in the far remote past was the foundation for the evolutionary cradle of all more complex organisms' origin. Therefore, all higher living organisms today have their existence thanks to the predating development of plants with their roots and the surrounding earth. Hence, the organisms became intricately dependent on each other, where the plants and their roots created the actual soil stabilizer and water purifier for the ground and aquifers. Therefore, in historical times, Ethiopia's considerable rainwater resources were not so contradictory, and the reason was mainly the abundant natural and original vegetation of Ethiopia's highlands.

Careful Considerations and Opportunities (1995)

Once Established, the Entoto Natural Park will serve as a vital demonstration of how the mountain ridge around Addis Ababa used to be covered by the Indigenous Juniperus procera and how this unique type of native Ethiopian Nature obtains its required restorationFurthermore, this retrospective consideration delivers a necessary scientific background for studies by confirming the importance of the international scientific matter of the Environment. Hence, this critical worldwide commitment becomes elucidated and enriched by restoring Ethiopia's native woodland, thereby delivering the natural background of why the foreign Eucalyptus forest is being replaced. Thus, a historical landscape is restored by building up the ground with plants belonging to the Ethiopian identity and repairing the soil's stability previously lost in centuries of erosion. Gradually, the native forest will mature and become a green lung that will improve the air for the citizens of Addis Ababa. 


The History of the Environment

The Prehistoric Legacy of Water and Plants 
The prosperity of civilization in different cultures and parts of the World indicates an evident connection between an in-depth knowledge of biology and the specific culture's potential for development. Without a doubt, a healthy relationship is seen with this rule, even in other sciences. Still, it is particularly evident in biology, as this is so close to human health and well-being. However, the insidious hierarchical governing terror of the past caused severe scares among many nations, inflicting humiliation in severe starvation and fearful aversions, thus damaging the population's most critical needs for safe stimulus in daily life and duties.


πΈπ‘‘β„Žπ‘–π‘œπ‘π‘–π‘Ž'𝑠 πΌπ‘›π‘‘π‘–π‘”π‘’π‘›π‘œπ‘’π‘  π‘‰π‘’π‘”π‘’π‘‘π‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›

𝐴 π»π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘‘π‘Žπ‘”π‘’ π‘€π‘–π‘‘β„Ž π‘‡π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘œπ‘’π‘  π‘ƒπ‘œπ‘‘π‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™

The native vegetation was, in the past, the natural source of preventing the precious water from draining in short bursts of violent torrents. This seasonal water flow over the Ethiopian Highlands was then historically and even more pre-historically infiltrating the deluges into soil permeability and vertically delivered this mass of purified water to be stored as natural groundwater within ancient aquifers. Hence, the fabric of these original vegetation's roots and soil functioned as countless efficient feeding pipes of deluges directed into Ethiopia's thick soil layers and the country's mountain massifs' aquifers, thus preventing the shortage of groundwater during long periods of drought.

A Regrowth of Native Vegetation

When the new Indigenous forest has grown for some years and action has been taken to halt the erosion, the risk of flooding will be eliminated due to the reinforcement of Indigenous roots and soil with a water infiltration capacity well above today's situation. A balance is vital between the constraints of the landscape and the land use by man, where spontaneously introduced new animals will enrich the present wildlife. It is urgent to preserve declining natural resources such as the remaining wild forests in Ethiopia. Creating a scientific front to implement Entoto Natural Park's sustainability will align with Agenda 21 (a document signed at the Rio Conference upon the need to economize with the natural resources on earth).


Clean Air & Clean Water

The Indigenous Podocarpus falcatus
A Source of Health for the Capital
A Natural Place for Weekends and Studies
The experience of Ethiopian original and naturally fertile beauty near Addis Ababa, with fashionable facilities and historically cultural Sanctuaries and museums, will attract many people every season. Schoolchildren will be actively using the Park for environmental education purposes (or to find a peaceful spot to do homework. Restaurants and amenities at Entoto Kidane Mehret (1), Entoto Maryam (43), Entoto Park (Z) Accommodation and Food Services

A Gorgeous Protectorate for Weekends and Tourism
Tourists (mainly international) will enjoy the view of Addis, a visit to the restaurant on a hot afternoon, and the calmness of the juniper forest. Regular citizens of the Capital will come mainly at weekends. Still, visiting parks in Addis Ababa is a cultural habit, so visitors are expected to be high on Saturdays and Sundays.  (HΓ₯kan Blanck and Pia Englund, Entoto Natural Park 1995). 


The Healing Capacity of Indigenous Forests

A Historical Legacy Of  Scientific Importance

The natural health and fertile beauty of this indigenous Juniper forest illuminate with precision the healing ability of a native forest and the severe Nature and habitat destruction that occurred at the introduction of the Eucalyptus tree. Due to these shortcomings in the water-preserving capacity of the Eucalyptus plantation, it cannot counterbalance the uneven distribution of rain. This eucalyptus poisoning of the ground creates a devastating water-rejecting fabric, yet hazardously brittle and prone to the sudden collapse of the upper soil layer, all too often followed by disasters and torrential flooding in the down-slope areas, in this case, a seasonal risk for the northern district of Addis Ababa.

 The Danger Of Foreign Toxicity Follows Shortsightedness

Hence, pure scientifically based investigations and practical actions of experience against erosion prevail as crucial; otherwise, these erosive forces from torrential deluges constitute an overwhelming danger of sudden floodings. Due to the foreign intruder trees' damaging impact on the county's original Nature, this eucalyptus tree's toxicity in Ethiopia's Nature elucidates the importance of careful research regarding dangerous incompatible substances' toxicity, causing soil degeneration such as erosion or dust-bowl. Here, knowledge of natural sciences prevails as utterly necessary before any alien species is regarded as possible for introduction into a potentially vulnerable habitat.

Water to the Capital

Aquifers and Technology

The Valuable Knowledge of Antiquity
The Knowledge of these natural aquifers and their synergies with water technologies is a highly valued historical legacy of antiquity. In their context, they are a well-known concept that helps to understand that a mighty mountain massif that receives abundant and regular precipitation with chilly temperatures also provides the conditions for harbouring this water. However, constructing artificial dams to meet the water needs of a larger population has, in modern times, proven to be a hazardous solution in connection with nearby settlements. In ancient times, a technology was developed for hidden, huge, but also safe mountain halls to prevent a fatal breakthrough collapse of man-made dams. 

Underground Reservoirs
Historically and very early developed technical and geological-based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water are often technically complex and aesthetically exquisite. The historical constructions to securely harbour water appear in the picture to the left. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Still, in history's legacy, they are the basis of ancient civilizations' most decisive and original technological achievements and their ability to progress in today's high-tech development.


A Mountain Massif's Water Harbouring Properties

The Hidden Ties of the Highlands and the Plants

What seems too complicated to describe in standard terms can sometimes be given a simple parable opportunity. In short, a few stones do not hinder a flowing torrent but very well by a firmly anchored uniform stone construction. Consequently, the few randomly placed rocks are lost in futile hardships, with crouching labourers by sweat and thirst in toil's despair and poverty. In contrast, the opposite is usually the case with the deeply anchored unit and its amounts of valuable dammed water at hand to use when the drought occurs. Of course, the natural forest consists of many complex biological phenomena with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship with a highly ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the environment. 

Humankind's High-Tech With Nature's Foundation

Thus, the mountains' native highland vegetation and primaeval forest, with their tremendous network of organically self-repairing armoured effects, drastically enhance protection against landslides and lahars. Hence, a precious evolutionary synergy appears due to the endemic vegetation's capacity to subdue the water's torrential forces over the mountain's slopes and carefully download these deluges while feeding them gradually into deep the essential and natural underground aquifers. Therefore, this phenomenon, which hides in the higher landscape's terrain of the native forests' water harbouring effect, gets its elucidating view in the image below, with its clear aquifers within the vast embrace of a stabilizing mountain massif. Thus, there seems to be an apparent and helpful coincidence between the strength's importance within native forests' armouring and water harbouring effect in the mountain massif and today's need for high security within today's demands for state-of-the-art dam constructions, albeit, even within the apparent brilliance from ancient technology shown in the image above.



This picture shows the importance of storing the
 high-lying mountain water instead of rejecting it
  in rapid flows.This stored water in the mountain
 massif is crucial in the following years. It thus
 provides the lower-lying villages with a stable
 the flow of purified water during the year.
Water and Land Restoration

The Indigenous Vegetation
the Source of Groundwater
The native forest and scrub are essential for creating groundwater in the natural mountain reservoirs of underground aquifers. This original ground exists in natural areas with complete undergrowth and indigenous biological micro-structure, unique to such places as established national parks with superior ability to withstand erosion. This phenomenon of trees and ground are interconnected, and this indigenous vegetation is crucial for distributing rainwater and preventing environmental decay. Naturally, with high importance, work should prioritise the endemic forest on the mountain massifs.

The Native Trees' Legacy for Protection of Water and Soil
These careful considerations of native nature appear in a complex and beautiful picture of lifeforms, where they optimize their genetic code using aeons of old evolutionary symbiotic networks. Thus, by this evolution of antiquity, the natural forest obtained immense strength for creating groundwater and its extreme capacity to withstand erosion. Furthermore, it's essential to understand the precarious synergy between the native plants' highly advanced biology and the ground they created during aeons. 


Nature's Mighty Rain Receiving Reservoir

Within the inviting beauty of the natural landscape lies a complex biology within the primaeval forest, which hides a tremendously important science by its tremendous capacity for the creation of groundwater but also thanks to its natural way of enriching the clouds to create precipitation. This evolutionary heritage showcases the indigenous forest's optimized evolution as water guardians, a testament to its overwhelming strength. The indigenous forest plays a crucial role in saturating the aquifers, with its potent water accumulation effect within the actual depth of the mountain massif's total configuration. Hence, the body naturally harboured water, retained in the mountains' native highland vegetation, primaeval forest, and aquifers, can be considered and scientifically analyzed with considerable help from the methods used for highly complex dam and reservoir constructions.


Clean Water with Native Ethiopian Trees

Erosion: Because there is no ground cover beneath the foreign tactical poisoning from Eucalyptus trees, the only thing to hold the soil prevails in these alien trees' sporadically and sparsely occurring web of roots. Therefore, the soil-holding capacity of Eucalyptus is very moderate compared with the indigenous trees initially covering the slopes of Entoto. Hence, when the new Indigenous forest has grown for some years and action has been taken to halt the erosion, the risk of flooding will be eliminated due to healthy and robust soil with a water infiltration capacity well above today's situation. A balance and even symbiosis are intended between Nature's unique demands of the indigenous species and the land use by man. Hence, this positive synergy creates a foundation for the population's health and stimulates the positive side effect of a restored landscape where the original Nature spontaneously introduces new animals that will enrich the present wildlife.


The Torrential Rains and Erosion


The Torrential Rains and Erosion
The Australian Tree's Hostility in Ethiopia
A chemical defence mechanism in the leaves and roots of eucalyptus trees aggressively interrupts the growth of other trees and herbs. This toxic chemical component poisons Ethiopia's native vegetation, leading to a monoculture with Eucalyptus as the only tree species and, eventually, no shielding ground cover, causing devastating erosion.

A Foreign Toxin with Soil Milling Properties
This chemical component causes severe loss of the grounds' natural armour, followed by erosion - easily observed in the water running through the developing countries during the rainy seasons. For every rain period, the layer of fertile soil gets thinner. If nothing is done now, nothing will be left for new vegetation in a couple of years, and the erosion will be irreversible.




The Eucalyptus Problem
A Toxicity Causing Desertification and Famine
Ethiopia's landscapes' endemic trees and native undergrowth ground covering protecting and reinforcing shield of armouring deep and vast network often do not survive the perpetual onslaught by this foreign and toxic substance, which causes an unavoidable impoverishment of the landscape. Hence, the following lack of native vegetation causes an uncontrollable force of erosion in forcefully ground chiselling flashfloods where the landscape loses its precious nourishment. Thus, this poisoning causes the loss of endemic habitats for Ethiopia's wildlife and destroys previously lush pastures, leaving once productive meadows impossible for livestock, thereby gravely impoverishing the farmers' daily life and, regrettably, even the conditions for the survival of the farmers and their families. The following impact of the severe loss of water resources by torrential flashflood rejections of valuable deluges by short-lived sudden and violent, bursting water masses is also threatening the country's economy and, ultimately, even the real threat to the population's health and life quality, thus affecting the long-term survival of the country's inhabitants.




The Humankind Within the World of Reality

Without any doubt, a healthy relationship is essential within every human between the laws of Nature and its identity as a member of humankind. With this rule of a deeply interconnected duality of the human identity within the World, biology and psychology reveal their overwhelming influence on humans. Since the natural sciences of biology and psychology regarding humans often appear as the real core of human Nature, it is particularly evident due to their influence on human health and well-being. However, a development from antiquity of the insidious hierarchical governing terror of the past caused severe scares among many nations, inflicting humiliation in severe famine, thus damaging the population's most critical needs for safe stimulus in daily life and duties.



The Idea of the connection between human behaviour
and its genetic heritage is a complicated subject and
constitutes a central core of research on the human
species and its civilizations throughout the ages.
Foundation on Scientific Giants 
It seems obvious to reconcile Sigmund Freud's description of the human psyche with Charles Darwin's legendary explanation of the origin of species, albeit harsh for many to treat the human species among others and to analyze humankind on this scientific basis. Undeniably, there is a will in human culture to rise above Nature and instead emphasize humanity's elevated origin. 

DNA and Psychology United
The unification of the behaviour and biology within the human species is thus a complex problem to summarize. Consequently, great attention is crucial here to direct careful observation because the subject is complicated and highly intricate. Therefore, it appears a noble opportunity for the individual to become the source of well-being.


Sustainable Development

The restoration of Ethiopia's native vegetation and the transformation by liberation from foreign intruders' Eucalyptus plantations are crucial. On Entoto's mountain massif, this critical restoration of Nature's stability and resilience remains essential for the country's natural foundation and, thereby, the well-being of the citizens. The biodiversity, through the planting of indigenous vegetation, thus serves the population economically and biologically through improved climate and clean water accessibility. Restoring Entoto Natural Park's original Nature will allow the Capital to significantly increase access to the demanded drinking water. Therefore, natural forests are crucial as they are a complex biological phenomenon with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship with a highly ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the environment. To understand this somewhat complex phenomenon of water-retaining properties within the mountain massifs' highland, the highly advanced secrets of Nature appear assisted by picturing the similarities of today's sciences in high-tech solutions. Hence, Nature's intricate organically built stabilizer proves its complicated phenomenon of withholding and securing water thanks to the interaction in synergy between the plant and the ground, where its classic science correlates considerably with the methods used for highly complex dam constructions.


The Capital and its People:

A Nature of Clean Water and Air

Hence, the required substantial water supply is harboured for the Capital due to new reinforcement effects from planting indigenous vegetation, which thus serves the population's requirements for health and progress. Therefore, except for the highly demanded continuous plantation of indigenous seedlings, the existing natural plants will reproduce and grow once clean deluges, cleansing away the foreign and, for Ethiopia, the incompatible Eucalyptus trees' tactical and devastating poisoning defence system; thereby, Ethiopia's highland landscape obtained deliberation from the Australian invaders' tormenting effects on the Ethiopian highland ground. After this highly demanding work requires a couple of rainy seasons, thoroughly wash away the tactical Eucalyptus toxins in the soil down the hill.


Entoto Park (Z) - A Glamorous Park
With Stimulus for Joy and Health
Bees' Cliff 14 assists by the comprehensive map
 loop surrounding points 36 and 41-42
Activities and Recreation
Overwhelming in the impressions of accommodations, Entoto Park's (Z) entertaining activities are extensively within art and culture facilities. In many respects, Entoto Park (Z) offers a wide area for any taste or interest, where the relaxing activities within the Park capture the family's need for dramatic adventures. Yet, even more, this Park is a serene and golden gateway, intriguing and alluring, stimulating the exploration of the Ethiopian Highland's still unknown riddles of its elusive and majestic wilderness.

A Park On World's Elevated Pillars' Mystique
Here, the mountain's true drama fulfils the essential purpose of creating an eager will for contact with the deep mystique of Nature. Thus, this magnificent view of Entoto's mountain massif's original Nature, allure with its proximity to the secrets of Nature's phenomenon, delivers this unique opportunity to explore. This irresistible academy of the evolutionary past appears thanks to the Park's grande surroundings of the facilities where the critical and forgotten legacy of humankind's fundamental mechanisms becomes well accommodated with these cosy, family-friendly restaurants, activities and amusements.



A Country of Grande Highland's Adventure

Ethiopia's Unique Highland Landscape & Climate

Regarding Ethiopia's unique climate in the seasons, with months of heavy downpours over the country's characteristic rugged landscape topography followed by months of blistering sunshine, difficulties naturally arise for the survival of planted saplings. The long prehistoric Nature's evolutionary optimized stability in sheer strength and water infiltration to the ground found in the original native vegetation is thus often impossible to recreate with a simple planting of fragile young seedlings. Consequently, it is usually associated with incredible frustration to reproduce the natural health of ancient Nature and restore healthy landscape biotopes by replanting young native plants on exposed, eroded mountain slopes and devastated high plateaus. Therefore, Ethiopia's neglected indigenous Nature demands knowledge and work before any sign of evident healing of the country's Nature and freshwater conservation.



Requirements: Water and Soil Protections

Thus, it is impossible to recreate a stable and healthy nature by replanting a few native trees on a devastated plateau; instead, these sporadically planted young plants on the table will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from the blistering seasonal sun. Furthermore, on the slopes, these young plants most often need some temporary stabilizer of the ground and protection in something that mimics the wind and sun-protective effect of many mother trees. In addition, sporadically placed young plants can only offer a very rudimentary and weak protective network against erosion; instead, there is the obvious risk that these young plants will, in all probability, soon perish in the struggle against great forces.



Humankind's Sciences in Synergy with

Creation of Nature's Foundation

Concerning the enigmatic loss of knowledge from antiquity, it has often surprised today's observers with its historically proven colossal early insight into high technological achievements and durable concrete. Despite this civilization's advanced knowledge, technology was lost or forbidden and disappeared during the Dark Ages, the early Middle Ages, characterized by the belief in supernatural beings and demonic possession, which plagued humanity for centuries until the end of the Inquisition's compulsive inclination for bestial persecution. However, before the decline in these Dark Ages, civilization proved capable of high technology, which dominated the culture through advanced sciences, engineering, and architecture, whose creations still adorn today's architecture.


Sciences and Technology of the Ancient Civilization

 Hence, it follows the natural assumption that on several occasions, the people of highly developed ancient societies have observed the peculiarly amplifying confinement of fossilized organisms in petrified strata and ammonite concretions. Due to this background, within an exceptionally gifted civilization, there is a presumption that they acutely analyzed and copied this reinforcing phenomenon by applying this to the material of their civilization's buildings. This so-called Roman concrete can thus have undergone a development process where they discovered through successes and failures that incorporated specific reinforcing science, hiding within certain fossilized minerals. Therefore, in antiquity, civilizations succeeded in advancing their concrete into a unique material with a crucial ability to self-repair properties over time, which even today remain superior in long-term durability.



The Lost Secrets of Antiquity
The Environment and Humankind's Future
With the Lost Knowledge from Antiquity

Although this Italian ruin remains today's decaying concrete, the renovation of this mountain fortress point (38) within the loop (B), see the map below, can stimulate an excellent foundation for a historical discovery of the lost recipe for Roman concrete. Although this historical concrete's millennia-old secrets still prevail as a crucial investigation of international laboratories, its deepest secrets persist. This potential rediscovery of ancient concrete with this lost high technology and historical treasure from antiquity would offer a scientific study of Roman technology within an educational project.
 


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International Retrospective


Tasmanian tiger, Tasmanian wolf  (Thylacine)
The Hope for the Future with Wildlife
Introducing plants that can harm a country's unique environment may seem reckless. An exception from imminent disaster is the eucalyptus tree in Ethiopia since it cannot self-propagate in Ethiopian soil. However, the country most affected by the introduction of foreign wildlife is perhaps Australia's Western civilization.

Huge Capital Losses - Wild Foreign Animals
This Western culture succeeded by being naive and shortsighted during its short time in Australia. Its addition of foreign animals caused extreme trouble in many fields and problematic consequences for many sections of Australian society, yet with even more threats against the country's original wildlife's survival.

The Indicated Background to the Loss of the Tasmanian Tiger ( Thylacine).
Perhaps one of the worst offences and acts of insanity was the official extinction of the Tasmanian tiger or Tasmanian wolf (Thylacine). This unique animal was officially eradicated from Tasmania during the first half of the 20th century and had previously the same destiny on the Australian mainland with the help of the Aboriginal Australians, probably in unintentional actions but nevertheless caused by the consequences of the introduction of wild dogs (dingo).

Many nature enthusiasts wonder why this very athletic and beautiful predator could not survive the onslaught of humans and dingoes. The probably most prudent answer to this obvious question is that it wasn't enough time and required too radical genetic evolutionary changes regarding the marsupial Thylacine's demanded DNA. In short, explained, it wasn't enough time for this solitary or pair living marsupial animal to evolve into a formidable close combat fighter in its lone struggle against the combined power of man and its pack-hunting canine predators. The predator Wolverine in the northern hemisphere or the Honey Badger in the southern hemisphere certainly appears to have an ecological basic pattern similar to Thylacine. However, the habitat of Honeybadger and Wolverine has a very long prehistory and evolutionary sharpened properties of defence against many herd-hunting dogs and their human companions.

Therefore, unlike Thylacine, the Wolverine and Honey badger have had an evolutionary development time of aeons as a sharply tempered backbone in their battle against pack-hunting dogs, wolves and humans. Due to this genetic development through combat with humans, domestic dogs and wild canines, the wolverine and honey badger have obtained small and regular genetically enhanced survival-controlled fighting and behavioural traits. Hence, compared to the Australian Tasman tiger marsupial (Thylacine), the mustelids Wolverine and Honey badger were early in the prehistory hardened by evolution into the required DNA development of astonishing abilities to climb insurmountable vertical obstacles together with an incredible ability to use their legendary strength in defence against aggressions of a multitude of predators. Thanks to their ancient heritage of massive athletic stamina, these impressive animals have often fended off incomprehensibly complex attacks from overwhelming predatory onslaughts since dawn.

However, these genetically evolving countermeasures usually require a very long time to develop and not too sudden or debilitating meetings in the power struggle with an overwhelming counterpart. The sudden encounter with humans, their hunting dogs, and wild canine flocks was likely overwhelming for the genetically unprepared marsupial Thylacine. The time was insufficient for Thylacine to develop genetic sequences against the new and unexpected threats, which demanded too many changes within its DNA of behaviour and strategies. However, it is neither without doubt nor utterly confident that the marsupial Thylacine is entirely extinct. Some areas in Tasmania are relatively inaccessible and mostly lack pack-hunting canine animals and human presence, so there is still a possibility for a few unknown, elusive marsupials. Also, several eyewitnesses consider themselves witnesses to this animal's existence, even on the Australian mainland.

Research Regarding the Resurrection of Extinct Species.
There is an opportunity to exchange knowledge between Australia and Ethiopia, where plants and animals could require protected areas in previously devastated habitats. This follows a unique possibility for exchange between countries' expertise and unique habitats with even the possible reintroduction of extinct or vulnerable species. These previous mistakes would become a foundation for scientific development and a great asset by increasing knowledge within the exciting analysis of the natural sciences.

Furthermore, tissues remain in laboratories from this and other lost animals, so it may be possible to resurrect and introduce this and other animals to their original habitats.


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Handbook
Valuable trees and shrubs for Ethiopia:

Identification, Propagation and

 Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones

Azene Bekele-Tesemma

Edited by
Bo TengnΓ€s, Ensermu Kelbesa, Sebsibe Demissew and Patrick Maundu

The contents of this handbook may be reproduced without special permission. However, acknowledgement of the source is requested. The photographers and artists concerned must be contacted for the reproduction of illustrations. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of World Agroforestry Centre.

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