Benefits from the Establishment of the Park

Benefits from the Establishment of the Park

A Wonderful Memory that Attracts Modern Science and Art

With Entoto's sculptural brooks and natural cliff pools, this historic mountain remains in precious memories as a heritage of sincere affection and natural wealth. Thus, it's a venerated time when the mountain massif and its canyons could carry significantly higher quantity and quality of water. Therefore, with glowing passion and warmth among the residents of Entoto, linger still the joy of memories when the water level a reasonable time after the rainy season still stood one metre higher in the brooks and natural cliff pools of the high plateau. With the profound history of Entoto's rock-sheltered streams and enchanting nature rock baths, this beautiful memory is still very vivid today among the inhabitants of this legendary mountain.

Ethiopia's Grande Nature History 

With Water Harbouring Functions

With the guardian and a profoundly anchored network of roots and stems, a complex picture of evolution's optimization emerges of Ethiopia's original vegetation. The endemic vegetation in the past of Ethiopia's highlands had a primaeval forest with an intricate network of stems and a deeply anchored network of roots functioning as countless efficient water collectors. Therefore, in ancient times, Ethiopia's considerable rainwater resources were not so contradictory, and the reason was mainly the abundant natural and original vegetation of Ethiopia's highlands. This native Ethiopian vegetation served as a highly effective physical barrier, blocking the country's water masses from rushing down the country's slopes in the direction of Egypt. Due to Nature's natural ground pipes of the native vegetation's intricate network of roots, the seasonal deluges had sophisticated water receivers into Ethiopia's thick soil layers. Therefore, after the downpours, the deeper groundwater reservoirs were given their purified water deliverance to securely store in the terrain's deep aquifers. Hence, this original vegetation functioned as countless efficient water collectors with an intricate network of stems and a deeply anchored network of roots, further stabilizing the landscape and giving tremendous strength against erosion and deterioration.

The Environment,
Culture and Prosperity
A Regrowth of Native Vegetation

When the new indigenous forest has grown for some years and action has been taken to halt the erosion, the risk of flooding will be eliminated due to the reinforcement of indigenous roots and soil with a water infiltration capacity well above today's situation. A balance is vital between the constraints of the landscape and the land use by man, where spontaneously introduced new animals will enrich the present wildlife.

The International Commitment for Nature & Environment.
It is an urgent task to preserve such declining natural resources as the remaining wild forests in Ethiopia. Creating a scientific front to implement sustainability of the Entoto Natural Park will be in line with Agenda 21 (document signed at the Rio Conference upon the need to economize with the natural resources on earth).

Careful Considerations and Opportunities (1995)

Once Established, the Entoto Natural Park will serve as a vital demonstration of how the mountain ridge around Addis Ababa used to be covered by the Indigenous Juniperus procera and how this unique type of native Ethiopian Nature obtains its required restoration. Furthermore, this retrospective consideration delivers a necessary scientific background for studies by confirming the importance of the international scientific matter of the Environment. Hence, this critical worldwide commitment becomes elucidated and enriched by restoring Ethiopia's native woodland, thereby delivering the natural background to why the foreign Eucalyptus forest is replaced. Thus, a historical landscape is restored by building up the ground with plants belonging to the Ethiopian identity and repairing the soil's stability previously lost in centuries of erosion. Gradually, the native forest will mature and become a green lung that will improve the air for the citizens of Addis Ababa. 

Background: Due to these damaging effects of the foreign implanted tree and its shortcomings, the water-preserving capacity of this Eucalyptus plantation cannot counterbalance the regular seasonal, uneven distribution of rain. The result is regrettably a massive water loss in uncontrollable torrential flooding, inundating the down-slope areas, in this case, the northern district of Addis Ababa. In August 1994, it created a fatal danger because of overwhelming and sudden flooding.

Clean Air & Clean Water

A Source of Health For the Capital

The indigenous Podocarpus falcatus tree
A Natural Place for Weekends and Studies
Experience of Ethiopian original and naturally fertile beauty near Addis Ababa with fashionable facilities or historically cultural Sanctuaries with museums will attract many people every season. Schoolchildren will be actively using the Park for environmental education purposes (or to find a peaceful spot to do homework. Restaurants and amenities at Entoto Kidane Mehret (1), Entoto Maryam (43), Entoto Park (Z) Accommodation and Food Services

A Captivating Protectorate for Weekends and Tourism.
Tourists (mainly international) will enjoy the view of Addis, a visit to the restaurant on a hot afternoon, and the juniper forest's calmness. Regular citizens of the Capital will come mainly at weekends. Still, visiting parks in Addis Ababa is a cultural habit, so visitors are expected to be high on Saturdays and Sundays.  (HΓ₯kan Blanck and Pia Englund, Entoto Natural Park 1995). 

The Healing Capacity of an Indigenous Forest

A Legacy for Sciences Of Evolutionary Importance

The natural health and fertile beauty in this indigenous Juniper forest illuminate with precision the healing ability of a native forest and the severe Nature and habitat destruction that occurred at the introduction of the Eucalyptus tree. Due to these shortcomings in the water-preserving capacity of the Eucalyptus plantation, it cannot counterbalance the uneven distribution of rain. This eucalyptus poisoning of the ground creates a devastating water-rejecting fabric of the upper soil layer, all too often followed by torrential flooding in the down-slope areas, in this case, a seasonal risk for the northern district of Addis Ababa.

 The Danger Of Foreign Toxicity Follows Shortsightedness

Hence, pure scientifically based investigations and practical actions of experience against erosion prevail as crucial; otherwise, these erosive forces from torrential deluges constitute an overwhelming danger of sudden floodings. Due to the foreign intruder trees' damaging impact on the county's original Nature, this eucalyptus tree's toxicity in Ethiopia's Nature elucidates the importance of careful research regarding dangerous incompatible substances' toxicity, causing soil degeneration such as erosion or dust-bowl. Here, knowledge of natural sciences prevails as utterly necessary before any alien species is regarded as possible for introduction into a potentially vulnerable habitat.

Water to the Capital

Aquifers and Technology

The Valuable Knowledge of Antiquity.

The Knowledge of these natural aquifers and their synergies with water technologies is a highly valued historical legacy of antiquity.  In their context, they are a well-known concept that helps to understand that a mighty mountain massif that receives abundant and regular precipitation with chilly temperatures also provides the conditions for harbouring this water.

Underground Reservoirs.

Historically and very early developed technical and geological-based methods for managing and saving enormous amounts of water are often technically complex and aesthetically exquisite. The methods of this water technology vary significantly between different cultures and continents. Still, in history's legacy, they are the basis of ancient civilizations' most decisive and original technological achievements and their ability to progress in today's high-tech* development.

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𝐴 π»π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘‘π‘Žπ‘”π‘’ π‘€π‘–π‘‘β„Ž π‘‡π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘šπ‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘œπ‘’π‘  π‘ƒπ‘œπ‘‘π‘’π‘›π‘‘π‘–π‘Žπ‘™

The native vegetation was, in the past, the natural source of preventing the precious water from draining in short bursts of violent torrents. This seasonal water flow over the Ethiopian Highlands was then historically and even more pre-historically infiltrating the deluges into soil permeability and vertically delivered this mass of purified water to be stored as natural groundwater within ancient aquifers. Hence, the fabric of these original vegetation's roots and soil functioned as countless efficient feeding pipes of deluges directed into Ethiopia's thick soil layers and the country's mountain massifs' aquifers, thus preventing the shortage of groundwater during long periods of drought.

Humankind's High-Tech in Synergy with

Creation of Nature's Foundation

What seems too complicated to describe in standard terms can sometimes be given a simple parable opportunity. In short, a few stones do not hinder a flowing torrent but very well by a firmly anchored uniform stone construction. Consequently, the few randomly placed rocks are lost in futile hardships, crunching the labourer by sweat and thirst in toil's despair and poverty. In contrast, the opposite is usually the case with the anchored unit and its amounts of valuable dammed water at hand to use when the drought occurs. Of course, the natural forest consists of many complex biological phenomena with countless plants and organisms in a symbiotic relationship that has a highly ancient evolutionary origin as water protectors for the Environment. Therefore, the water-retaining properties of the mountain massifs' highland in synergy with endemic vegetation and its trees can be considered and scientifically analyzed with considerable help from the methods used for highly complex dam constructions.

The Lost Secrets of Antiquity

The Environment and Humankind's Future
With the Lost Knowledge from Antiquity

Although this Italian ruin was built in today's decaying concrete, the renovation of this mountain fortress (38) - (B) can stimulate an excellent foundation for a historical discovery of the lost recipe for Roman concrete. Although this historical concrete's millennia-old secrets still prevail as a crucial investigation of international laboratories, its deepest secrets persist. This potential rediscovery of ancient concrete with this lost high technology and historical treasure from antiquity would offer a scientific study of Roman technology within an educational project. 

Clean Water with Native Ethiopian Trees

Erosion: Because there is no ground cover beneath the foreign tactical poisoning from Eucalyptus trees, the only thing to hold the soil prevails in these alien trees' sporadically and sparsely occurring web of roots. Therefore, the soil-holding capacity of Eucalyptus is very moderate compared with the indigenous trees initially covering the slopes of Entoto. Hence, when the new indigenous forest has grown for some years, and action has been taken to halt the erosion, the risk of flooding will be eliminated due to healthy and robust soil with a water infiltration capacity well above today's situation. A balance and even symbiosis are intended between Nature's unique demands of the indigenous species and the land use by man. Hence, this positive synergy creates a foundation for the population's health and stimulates the positive side effect of a restored landscape where the original Nature spontaneously introducing new animals will enrich the present wildlife.

The Torrential Rains and Erosion
The Australian Tree in Ethiopia.
A chemical component in the leaves and roots of Eucalyptus trees prevents the growth of both other trees and herbs. This chemical component poisoning Ethiopia's native vegetation - further leads to a monoculture with Eucalyptus as the only tree species and eventually no ground cover.

A Foreign Toxin with Soil Milling Properties.
This chemical component causes severe erosion, easily observed in the water running through Addis in connection with the rainy seasons. For every rain period, the layer of fertile soil gets thinner. If nothing is done now, nothing will be left for new vegetation in a couple of years, and the erosion will be irreversible.

Sustainable Development

The restoration of Ethiopia's native vegetation and the transformation by the liberation from the foreign intruders' Eucalyptus plantations are highly crucial. On Entoto's mountain massif, this critical restoration of Nature's stability and resilience remains essential for the country's natural foundation and, thereby, the well-being of the citizens. The biodiversity, by new plantings of indigenous vegetation, thus serves the population economically and biologically by improved climate and clean water accessibility. Restoring Entoto Natural Park's original Nature will allow the Capital to significantly increase the amount of the much-demanded drinking water.

The Capital and its People:

A Nature of Clean Water and Air

Hence, the required and substantial water supply is harboured for the Capital due to new reinforcement effects from plantings of indigenous vegetation and thus serves the population's requirements for health and progress. Therefore, except for the highly demanded continuous plantation of indigenous seedlings, the existing natural plants will reproduce and grow once clean deluges, cleansing away the foreign and, for Ethiopia, the incompatible Eucalyptus trees' tactical and devastating poisoning defence system; thereby, Ethiopia's highland landscape obtained deliberation from the Australian invaders' tormenting effects on the Ethiopian highland ground. After this highly demanding work requires a couple of rainy seasons, thoroughly wash away the tactical Eucalyptus toxins in the soil down the hill.

Entoto Park (Z)

Bees' Cliff 14 assists by the comprehensive map
 loop surrounding points 36 and 41-42
Activities and Recreation
Overwhelming in the impressions of accommodations, Entoto Park's (Z) entertaining activities are extensively within art and culture facilities. In many respects, Entoto Park (Z) offers a wide area for any taste or interest where the relaxing activities within the Park capture the family's need for dramatic adventures. Yet, even more, this Park is a serene and golden gateway, intriguing and alluring, stimulating to explore the Ethiopian Highland's still unknown riddles of its elusive and majestic wilderness.

Concealed within the foundation of the world's ground pillars, the mountain's true drama fulfils the essential purpose of creating an eager will for learning. Thus, this magnificent view of Entoto's mountain massif's original Nature, allure with its proximity to the secrets of Nature's phenomenon, delivers this unique opportunity to explore. This irresistible academy of the evolutionary past appears thanks to the Park's grande surroundings of the facilities where the critical and forgotten legacy of humankind's fundamental mechanisms becomes well accommodated with these cosy, family-friendly restaurants and activities.

Ethiopia's Unique Highland Landscape and Climate

Regarding Ethiopia's unique climate in the seasons, with months of heavy downpours over the country's characteristic rugged landscape topography followed by months of blistering sunshine, difficulties naturally arise for the survival of planted saplings. The long prehistoric Nature's evolutionary optimized stability in sheer strength and water infiltration to the ground found in the original native vegetation is thus often impossible to recreate with a simple planting of fragile young seedlings. Consequently, it is often associated with incredible frustration to reproduce the natural health of ancient Nature and restore healthy landscape biotopes by replanting native young plants on exposed eroded mountain slopes and devastated high plateaus. Therefore, Ethiopia's neglected indigenous Nature demands knowledge and work before any sign of evident healing of the country's Nature and freshwater conservation.

Requirements: Water and Soil Protections

Thus, it is impossible to recreate a stable and healthy nature by replanting a few native trees on a devastated plateau; instead, these sporadically planted young plants on the table will require tender care with irrigation and protection against grazing animals and shade from the blistering seasonal sun. Furthermore, on the slopes, these young plants most often need some temporary stabilizer of the ground and protection in something that mimics the wind and sun-protective effect of many mother trees. In addition, sporadically placed young plants can only offer a very rudimentary and weak protective network against erosion; instead, there is the obvious risk that these young plants will, in all probability, soon perish in the struggle against great forces.


International Retrospective

Tasmanian tiger, Tasmanian wolf  (Thylacine)
The Hope for Future with Wildlife.
It may seem irresponsible and even entirely insane to introduce plants that provide a decisive opportunity for environmental destruction. However, the most affected or harshly exposed country regarding the introduction of foreign wildlife is maybe Australia, with its reasonably recently introduced Western civilization.

Huge Capital Losses - Wild Foreign Animals.
This Western culture succeeded by naive shortsightedness during its short time in Australia to adding animals that have entailed and brought extreme trouble in many fields and problematic consequences for many sections of the Australian society.

The Indicated Background to the Loss of the Tasmanian Tiger ( Thylacine).
Perhaps one of the worst offences and acts of insanity was the official extinction of the Tasmanian tiger or Tasmanian wolf (Thylacine). This unique animal was officially eradicated from Tasmania during the first half of the 20th century and had previously the same destiny on the Australian mainland with the help of the Aboriginal Australians, probably in unintentional actions but nevertheless caused by the consequences of the introduction of wild dogs (dingo).

Many nature enthusiasts wonder why this very athletic and beautiful predator could not survive the onslaught of humans and dingoes. The probably most prudent answer to this obvious question is that it wasn't enough time and required too radical genetic evolutionary changes regarding the marsupial Thylacine's demanded DNA. In short, explained, it wasn't enough time for this solitary or pair living marsupial animal to evolve into a formidable close combat fighter in its lone struggle against the combined power of man and its pack-hunting canine predators. The predator Wolverine in the northern or the Honey Badger in the southern hemisphere certainly appears to have a similar ecological basic pattern to Thylacine. However, the habitat of Honeybadger and Wolverine has very long prehistory and evolutionary sharpened properties of defence against many herd-hunting dogs and their human companions.

Therefore, unlike Thylacine, the Wolverine and Honey badger have had an evolutionary development time of aeons as a sharply tempered backbone in their battle against pack-hunting dogs, wolves and humans. Due to this genetic development through combat with humans, domestic dogs and wild canines, the wolverine and honey badger have obtained small and regular genetically enhanced survival-controlled fighting and behavioural traits. Hence, compared to the Australian Tasman tiger marsupial (Thylacine), the mustelids Wolverine and Honey badger were early in the prehistory hardened by evolution into the required DNA development of astonishing abilities to climb insurmountable vertical obstacles together with an incredible ability to use their legendary strength in defence against aggressions of a multitude of predators. Thanks to their ancient heritage of massive athletic stamina, these impressive animals often fend off incomprehensibly complex attacks from overwhelming predatory onslaughts since the dawn of time.

However, these genetically evolving countermeasures usually require a very long time to develop and not too sudden or debilitating meetings in the power struggle with an overwhelming counterpart. The sudden encounter with humans, their hunting dogs, and wild canine flocks was likely overwhelming for the genetically unprepared marsupial Thylacine. The time was insufficient for Thylacine to develop genetic sequences against the new and unexpected threats, which demanded too many changes within its DNA of behaviour and strategies. However, it is neither without doubt nor utterly confident that the marsupial Thylacine is entirely extinct. Some areas in Tasmania are relatively inaccessible and mostly lack pack-hunting canine animals and human presence, so there is still a possibility for a few unknown, elusive marsupials. Also, several eyewitnesses consider themselves witnesses to this animal's existence, even on the Australian mainland.

Research Regarding the Resurrection of Extinct Species.
There is an opportunity to exchange knowledge between Australia and Ethiopia, where plants and animals could require protected areas in previously devastated habitats. This follows a unique possibility for exchange between countries' expertise and unique habitats with even the possible reintroduction of extinct or vulnerable species. These previous mistakes would become a foundation for scientific development and a great asset by increasing knowledge within the natural sciences' exciting analysis.

Furthermore, tissues remain in laboratories from this and other lost animals, so it may be possible to resurrect and introduce this and other animals to their original habitats.


Valuable trees and shrubs for Ethiopia:

Identification, Propagation and

 Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones

Azene Bekele-Tesemma

Edited by
Bo TengnΓ€s, Ensermu Kelbesa, Sebsibe Demissew and Patrick Maundu

The contents of this handbook may be reproduced without special permission. However, acknowledgement of the source is requested. The photographers and artists concerned must be contacted for the reproduction of illustrations. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of World Agroforestry Centre.


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